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There are a large number of methods that describe the reproduction of grapes using layers in the summer. These methods have a good result on land plots not infected with phylloxera, which affects the roots of a grape plant. Before direct planting of bushes, you should make sure that there is no this harmful insect in the soil. What is Dolma?- read our article!
Grape Duplication - What Is It?
Reproduction of grapes with the help of layering allows you to save a significant amount of money and at the same time create a decorative work of art. For example, applying this method, the main bush can be brought to the building or structure by creating a set or using the pedestals to make the shape of a fountain.
For the reproduction of grapes with layers in the summer, it is necessary to use only a healthy and well-fruiting maternal shrub. Its lower shoots should not have wilted ends or leaves, then the likelihood that they will not take root increases.
Near a bush, at a minimum distance of twenty centimeters, dig a long hole with a horizontal slope of forty degrees and vertical walls. Depth should not be less than fifty centimeters. Next, put the mixture consisting of manure and chernozem in equal proportions into the well and dig up well. Again make the adjustment of the angle of inclination to the fruiting shrub. Before directly deepening the shoot, remove all the leaves from it, except for three pieces with a growth point. Then lay the layers with the top layer of soil, compact well and pour water gently. The minimum amount of watering is two buckets. After waiting for the water to be absorbed, the well must be filled with the remaining earth, equalized by the level of the soil.
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Regular watering is done depending on weather conditions. If it is hot weather without precipitation, then water the grape bush preferably every day. As the outgrowth grows, stepchildren will appear on it. They should always be removed in order to avoid a shapeless bush. Leaving only growth shoots, by the end of summer one can grow a vine up to three meters high. The grafted otvodok will allow you to bring individual bushes, both for further reproduction, and for the breeding of a new bush instead of the old one.
Transplant rules and care for
- layouts. The escape used for withdrawal must be healthy and viable, and not too short. Transplantation is carried out in boxes, preferably wooden ones, 50x20 cm in size.
- Eyes that are below ground level are blinded. This is necessary in order to avoid unnecessary shoots. The number of peepholes above ground level should not be less than three.
- All freshly laid out layers should receive a sufficient amount of sunlight.
- Laying care consists of daily watering, loosening and removing grass and weeds. The optimum watering interval is every 10 days, but can be done more often in dry weather.
- The process of the final landing of the layers for a constant time should be carried out in the evening.
- It is not recommended to remove the layouts from the box in order not to damage the root system. To do this, the box is buried in the ground, after which the walls of the box are carefully removed one by one, and the resulting space is filled up.
Green way - divorcing by green layouts
If the bush has long shoots with buds, then you can use the green method. To do this, the layouts are fixed in the form of a sine wave: one part is buried in a hole about five centimeters deep, the second part spreads over the ground, then again goes the hole and the ground part. The area of the shoot embedded in the ground should be fixed with a wire. At the end of the excavation work, the bush and the shoots are carefully watered in regular mode.
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Short way - divorce by short layouts
Short grape branches can also be used for reproduction. Next to the bush, a 5 cm deep hole is dug and carefully watered. Part of the short runaway is lowered into it so that a supply of fifteen centimeters remains above the soil level. Next, the hole should be covered with earth and thoroughly sealed. The protruding part is attached to the protruding part in the form of a stick and fixed. Fixing the slice will prevent the trunk from curving or bending it down to the ground.
This method will allow you to propagate grapes in the summer and get your first harvest by the fall.
Aerial method - separation by aerial layering
This method of reproduction exists for a very long time and does not lose its popularity. Usually held in the spring season. An escape that already has its bark will form the formation of a new root system. Its top is cleared of leaves. Then, departing from it about twenty centimeters, a circular incision is made in half a centimeter across the diameter of the trunk. The exposed part is carefully wrapped in wet moss and wrapped in black polyethylene. This contributes to the eruption of new roots. In the autumn, all shoots with young roots are cut.
They should be disembarked only in a cool place, be it a greenhouse or a large pot. The final transplant to a permanent place is made only in the next spring period.
Lignified way - divorce by lignified layers
This type of reproduction is also carried out in the spring, in case of an emergency in the fall. The formed hole should be about sixty centimeters deep and located to the lowest escape from the bush. A mixture of manure and chernozem is poured into the hole, everything is carefully dug up and only then the layers are deepened. And on the surface there should be an escape with three eyes.
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If the bush urgently needs to be propagated in the fall, the upper part of the layer, left on the surface, is covered with a layer of twenty centimeters. Usually, in the first year, new branches grow on cuttings, and even a partial crop can be harvested. The separation from the main bush is made only after three years.
This type of grape divorce is not similar to all previous ones, since the cutting is done with the help of a whole bush, and not just a single shoot. Transplanting this way allows for the reconstruction of the vineyard as a whole. All bushes that grew without support are transplanted along the necessary structures or walls.
Also, the Kathaviak method is necessary when planting girlish grapes, which cannot grow without support.
For the Chinese method, a healthy and matured shoot is selected from the lower part of the shrub, which is buried in a twenty-centimeter well, pre-flavored with a mixture of manure and black earth. The branch is carefully fixed with wire and covered with topsoil. In the lower region of the shoot, towering above the ground, all eyes are removed.
With the growth of cuttings, the main thing is to sprinkle the hole in a timely manner, which contributes to the uniform reproduction of all their nodes.
Reproduction of grape layers requires close attention and patience. The transplant, carried out in due form, and regular care will provide a strong and healthy shrub, as well as a bountiful harvest.
Grape reproduction - video