Solid septic tank of concrete rings allows to organize wastewater treatment to about 70%, but the percentage of processing therein is lower than in the high biological stations (98%). Although such a system is much cheaper, and its device - easier. Why not use it for everything sewerage in the country, is not it?
Do you want to build their own septic tank and do not know where to start? We will help you thoroughly understand all the intricacies of the issue - in the article discussed in detail the concrete storage device, a detailed scheme of its construction. And step by step installation process, from preparation of materials to the launch of the system in operation.
Article is supplemented with illustrative photos and videos, which dismantled the nuances of functioning of the septic tank and the process of construction of the two-compartment storage.
The content of the article:
- How to locate a septic tank on the plot?
- The nuances of calculating the required volume of the container
- Schemes of septic systems
Mounting septic tanks with two deposition
- Step # 1 - selection of consumables and instruments
- Step # 2 - digging the foundation pit for the septic tank
- Step # 3 - Installation of the precipitation tanks
- Step # 4 - Installation of the ventilation system
- Step # 5 - Installation of the filtration system
- Step # 6 - the process of preparing to launch
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How to locate a septic tank on the plot?
Concrete ring are a good material for sewage in private households. If the area does not apply to environmental zones, then sewage can be saved, since the cost of the septic tank costs about half the price of buying a cleaning station.
Before you begin, you must determine the type of soil on the site. From its characteristics depend on the choice of the filtration system, as a septic tank design of concrete rings involves several containers. According to the norms of sanitary water should be subjected to three-day or more defending prior to discharge into the ground.
Type of soil can be determined by digging a pit, interviewing neighbors owning the well or wells by requesting information in the organization, conducting construction or drilling near the site.
Septic - underground sumps in which waste water is processed by separating the insoluble precipitate from the water. The water then enters the post-treatment system ground, and the organic precipitate is processed anaerobes
septic tank chamber are collected in the form of pits from concrete or reinforced concrete rings installed sequentially in the pit
Single-chamber septic tank is essentially a drive. It must be emptied as waste accumulation. In most cases, it is used to separate sewer for receiving the dirty water from the kitchen, bath, bath
The two-chamber concrete septic tank sewage processing occurs. In the first chamber, they defended and treated anaerobes. The second chamber operates dirt aftertreatment system, water is discharged through it into the ground
The more cameras in the septic tank, the higher the degree of wastewater treatment. There may be more than three. In sandy soils the final camera is always arranged in the form of an absorbing well, instead of having the bottom of the filter compactor
Absorbing it as the filter well is a concrete pit without a bottom. Instead, the chamber is filled filter rock - gravel, rubble and sand
If the filter well is sunk into the ground with low carrying capacity, for example in sandy soil, the filter complement lateral perforations to increase the rate of outflow of water
Concrete rings are building not only septic cameras, but also all kinds of underground items needed to control the operation of the sewer system and its maintenance
The principle of operation of a septic tank-sump
The construction of concrete rings
The principle of the device single-chamber septic tank
Organization of the two-chamber septic tank
Three-chamber septic tank of concrete rings
Features absorbing well
Ring with perforations for filtration
Just above the filtration coefficient of loam, slightly larger in sandy loam. However, their filtration properties is still not enough for the device listed on the clay soils aftertreatment systems groundwater runoff.
Moreover, virtually all of the clay soils characterized distending - the ability to grow in size during freezing and during thawing decrease. These ground motions can easily push out concrete tanks, completely destroy or simply squeeze them to the cracks.
If the site is located in a hilly area, with high probability he is the rock type of soil. In this case, you need to opt for the purification of ground stations or storage tanks
Sand, gravel, gravel and detrital sediments have good absorption properties. They freely pass water into its thickness, do not hinder its movement in the underlying layers.
True coarse sediments, such as sand and gravel, lie mainly in floodplains and rubble at the foot of the mountain formations.
The capacity of the clay is virtually zero. The primer of this type belongs to the category aquitard - waterproofing sawmills, non-absorbent and impermeable to water through its thickness
On the river and the mountain slopes filter constructions are not satisfied, because part of the drainage fluid can not pass enough for disposal into the ground additional cleaning cycle.
Because the normal conditions for the filtering device fields, the absorption wells and install Infiltrator considered sandy soils of all degrees of size and bulk density but silty.
In addition to the geological conditions necessary to comply with the rules of its location away from residential buildings and water sources.
This information is written into the sanitary standards and should be respected. Should avoid septic tank location close to the place of growth of the trees, as their root system may harm the construction
If we neglect the sanitary norms, can occur biological water pollution.
The sewage develop dangerous infectious agents. These include E. coli, which cause severe poisoning. It easily gets to the drinking water supply through ground water.
The nuances of calculating the required volume of the container
For the organization of the septic tank concrete rings you must calculate the amount based on the daily consumption of water.
According to the rules, per resident person has 200 cubic liters of water per day.
Single-chamber septic tank, constructed of concrete rings, often calculated on the receiving wastewater of up to 1 m³ / day
If the reception of mixed waste is supposed to their processing in the course of settling, the septic tank is divided into two or three cameras and is connected to the system ground aftertreatment
Two-compartment septic tank waste processing for constructing a volume from 3 to 8 m³ / day. cameras spaciousness calculated so that they were filled 3/4 of total
For processing waste in the amount of more than 8 m³ / day constructing a three-compartment septic tank. Chambers may be larger or they are grouped in a set range according to the conditions and the specific portion of the relief
The specifics of the single-chamber septic tank
Apparatus three chambers in a single well of
The average volume of the two-chamber septic tank
Multi-volume septic tanks
The first settling tank for waste water should not have a volume three times the size of consumption (200 liters) per person. A second container with the bottom of settler should have a volume equal to 1/3 of the first size.
With the rules of dual chamber storage facilities can be found in our other article.
The number of rings can be determined by dividing the volume of the container by the volume of the ring. Their size is small, medium and large.
To calculate the parameters of the middle ring size will be used. KC-10-9 an inner diameter of 1 m, a height - 90. One ring has a volume of 700 cubic liters
For a family of two people:
= Volume of the first container (200 * 2) * 3 = 1 200 cubic liters.
The volume of the second and third capacitance = 1 200/3 = 400 cubic liters.
The number of rings to two tanks = (1200 + 400) / 700 = 4
The number of rings for three capacitances = (1200 + 400 + 400) / 700 = 5
Subtotal: 2 rings settler tank 2 and one for the deposition of the drain well.
For a family of three:
= Volume of the first container (200 * 3) * 3 = 1 800 cubic liters.
The volume of the second and third capacitance = 1 800/3 = 600 cubic liters.
The number of rings to two tanks = (1 800 + 600) / 700 = 4
The number of rings for three capacitances = (1 800 + 1200) / 700 = 6
Subtotal: 2 rings settler tank 2 for deposition and two for the drain well.
Schemes of septic systems
septic tanks of concrete rings schemes suggest the presence of one, two or three cameras, where the sewage sedimentation and biological treatment.
Single-chamber septic tank provides a three-day assertion of waste. It requires pumping of excess sludge every 3 to 6 months. The quality of cleaning does not exceed 50%
In fact, the single-chamber septic tank is a conventional drive, which is pumped from drains scavengers.
Two-chamber septic tank provides 5-6 daily upholding drains. purification rate is 70%. Pump out the excess sludge is necessary every 12 months
The first and second container necessarily have a bottom. Next follows a third compartment where the dirt is also carried purification.
The next stage of purification is concluded surplus flow into the ground through the bottom filter well.
Three-chamber septic tank provides 7-9 daily upholding drains. purification rate is 80%. Pump out the excess sludge is necessary every 2 years
All cameras are arranged with a monolithic bottom, cleaning is carried out by settling. The settled liquid is displayed in Infiltrator or filter box for disposal into the soil.
Depending on the absorption capacity of the soil, you can select multiple filter options for the device septic tank of concrete rings:
- Septic system filter field.
- Septic system drainage wells.
- Septic system with filter cassette (Infiltrator).
The most common one is the drain filter well. It is used with good absorption properties of the soil.
To increase productivity, it is perforated bottom ring. Since the filtration area is increased. If the groundwater level is less than three meters from this option should be discarded
Between the level of the bottom of the absorption of the well conditioned and highest level of ground water in autumn / spring rainy period not required by regulations meter set filtration field.
For its construction at the site should be enough space.
During installation apply perforated tubes or tunnels. For uniform distribution of waste between the septic tank and field filtering establish a distribution well.
This is the optimal solution for areas where the groundwater level is less than 2.5 meters.
It should be remembered that between the lower edge drain pipes Field filtration and roof water-saturated layer thickness must also be ground power not less than a meter.
The filter cartridge is an analogue of the field of filtration, but it is more expensive. This average between the filter well and the aeration pipe system. It consists of a rectangular concrete tank, with several partitions inside. Top design closed with concrete slabs
This design is not widely used in the CIS countries.
With the filtration system need to be defined prior to installation of a septic tank made of concrete rings, as this will allow to prepare in advance the required pit size and depth.
If set filtration system after installation may cause damage to pipes and tanks. Therefore, the space which is bordered by the wall of the second tank deposition will dig around by hand, without using special equipment.
Mounting septic tanks with two deposition
Before starting work, check the level of groundwater. This can be done if the house has a cellar or basement, without a concrete floor. Measure the height from the ceiling to the surface layer of soil. This is the depth to which you can dig.
To find out how deep-seated groundwater can prokapat small in diameter, but a deep pit. Groundwater begin when will obviously damp earth. It's a sure sign it is not necessary to dig further.
The depth of occurrence of groundwater can be determined by appearance extracted from the soil pit. If it is saturated with water, the depth of its extraction can be taken as self-defined GWL
After became known approximate GWT, you can begin excavation. It is necessary to mark the place where a septic tank will be located. To do this, you need to outline the pits. To do this, you need to take a building or any strong thread, measure 80 cm. Bind to both ends of the two pegs.
One end of the stick in the middle of the place where you plan to place the first reservoir sedimentation. Outline the range. This exemplary diameter of the desired hole. Next, you need to retreat meter, and draw a border for the second container. Next you need to outline the boundaries of the filtration plant.
The boundaries of the excavation is necessary to enclose the perimeter pegs between which pull the thread. It is easier to navigate with the excavation
Step # 1 - selection of consumables and instruments
Before you begin, you need to collect all the necessary materials and tools.
To work needed:
- hammer and a large drill on concrete;
- nozzle mixer to the punch;
- bayonet shovels and spades;
- solution container for mixing;
- sturdy nylon rope;
Materials for the installation of a septic tank of concrete rings:
- bitumen or water glass;
- metal brackets;
- mineral wool or expanded polystyrene;
After will be picked up and prepared equipment for all stages of work, you can start digging holes.
Step 1: Before a device septic tank of concrete rings design pit. Development easier to conduct an excavator, cheaper - manually
Step 2: If the construction set malovlazhnogo sand, unable to keep the shape of the walls around the perimeter of the plank structure strengthen
Step 3: The bottom of the chamber, and drains the host intended for their separation from the concrete ring arrange with monolithic bottom
Step 4: From ordinary concrete rings collect the required height of the well. Before installation of each element of the previous end of treatment solution and paving bitumen impregnated rope
Step 5: There are differences in the absorption chamber device: it has no bottom to the conventional sense. Ring is mounted on the bottom of the pit, then poured into the gravel with sand - filling capacity meter least
Step 6: The two concrete well septic closed concrete rings with openings for the neck unit
Step 7: When necessary to increase the height of the well by setting the neck rings to which are attached a ring with manhole covers
If standing effluent will be scheduled in two concrete chambers, both constructed with a sealed bottom and a second filter connected to the field
Formation of the pit under the septic tank
Ukrpeplenie walls if necessary
The bottom of the sealed chamber
Installation of ordinary concrete rings
The construction of the absorption chamber
Installing ceiling details
Organization necks for septic chambers
Field filtration for purification of effluents
Step # 2 - digging the foundation pit for the septic tank
If you think that is difficult to produce excavation in such quantities by hand, so you can use the services of organizations possessing special equipment.
At the pressing of the button excavation need to order removal of the excess primer, as the deeper layers are usually loam, and are not suitable for use in the garden plots.
At the bottom of the excavation necessary to pour sand, where the lower ring tanks are installed. The thickness of cushion sand is 20-25 cm. Base to align the level of.
Next, you need to throw the sand with water, so that there was shrinkage. After compaction of the sandy grounds can overstep the installation rings.
Step # 3 - Installation of the precipitation tanks
To set the pre-imported to the site concrete rings to build a septic tank needed basis. To this end, the perimeter of the bottom of the pit is arranged wooden formwork. The height of the formwork walls to be at the level of 30-40 cm.
After the construction of the formwork, it is necessary to lay reinforcing mesh and diluted mortar. To do this, take 1 part cement into three parts CBC (a mixture of sand and gravel).
Kneading solution is possible by means of construction of the mixer. As the plasticizer in the solution may add two spoonfuls of liquid soap. This will make the concrete more resistant to pressure and moisture.
After pouring the base, it is necessary to wait for 10 - 14 days until the solution hardens and acquires the necessary strength. The formwork can not be removed. If you are using rented equipment, it is better to buy ready-made concrete slabs as a base.
After the base is prepared, it is possible to mount the ring. Weight impressive concrete structures, so it is necessary to use a crane. Mounting the containers takes place in stages.
In the concrete base is dipped first ring. Behind it is lowered and the second set. Ring to be moved smoothly, avoiding his blows or slipping. After the installation is done skobirovanie.
In both rings at the edges of the holes are made, they are inserted into the iron brackets that are bent to the outer side of the tank
In the next step, until the lid is lowered, it is necessary to cover the joints between the rings. After installing the ceiling in the tank will be dark, and there is a risk to leave the rough joints. For this purpose the mortar.
You may also be helpful with the waterproofing of concrete septic tank rings, detail dismantled here.
For ease of movement driving bracket mounted inside the vessel. They are necessary for the maintenance of a septic tank in the case of blockage or seal failure.
The same procedure is set adjacent deposition tank. Both tanks need to make holes for sewer pipes and mount them. An inlet for the sewage must be located higher than the overflow pipe between the tanks.
Next you need to set the ceiling with holes sufficient to through them can go down a man.
On top of the ceiling to install one concrete ring of small diameter. Thus, a small camera, which will isolate the container from falling cold air
In this installation of a septic tank of concrete rings finished and should install the ventilation system.
Step # 4 - Installation of the ventilation system
Ventilation is required for admission to the air system, which ensures the proper functioning of organisms. They perform processing of domestic waste water and freed from the organic component.
To ensure permanent circulation of air flows, requires two ventilation ducts.
The first pipe section is mounted in a sewer pipe, which is as close to the walls of a residential structure. The best solution would be the installation of the inner side of the wall, but can be mounted on the outside
In this case it is necessary to lay electrical cables for warming pipe, since the collision of warm and cold air, condensate formed in it, which blocks access of oxygen.
It must be secured with fasteners or clamps. The length of the vertical riser of the background should be at least the height of the walls of the house.
Ventilation also eliminates the unpleasant odor which periodically appears from the tanks and can be distributed through the house. This often occurs after prolonged absence of residents and drying the liquid in the siphon.
Another version of the solution with an unpleasant odor problem - installation check valve for sewage.
The second tube is mounted in the ceiling precipitation tank. For this use the punch punches a hole in the floor, which coincides with the diameter of the vent pipe.
Duct must rise above the Earth's surface at 70-100 cm. The position of this tube will be fixed weight of ground and needs no additional fixing.
Step # 5 - Installation of the filtration system
Next, consider the step by step instructions for the arrangement of the aeration fields and filter well.
Option # 1 - arrangement of the aeration fields
From the second concrete tank outlet pipe in the distribution well. For well you can use a plastic barrel, which cut holes suitable for aeration pipes.
You can buy a ready-made distribution well.
His release many companies that manufacture cleaning systems. By dispensing the well can be bought ready-made aeration field or made independently of sewer pipes
This requires the purchase of a pipe calculating the field size. For a family of four is enough area of 20 square meters (10 × 2). To do this, there will be three of the pipe length of 10 m. In addition to this need three elbow, which will be installed vent pipes.
Field pre slept sand and gravel, in order to improve the absorbing capacity of the soil.
On prepared drainage stacked perforated pipe connected to a dispense the well. At the ends of the pipes are installed Angular aeration nozzles, which are installed in the background risers, one for each tube.
Thereafter the tube is closed geotextile and backfilled with a mixture of gravel and sand, and then leveled. As siltation, aeration field to be moved or cleaned, changing drainage.
Option # 2 - Installation of the filter well
Well filter has a number of advantages over aeration field. It occupies less floor space in the area.
But the quality of the treated water will be higher in the aeration field, since before reaching the ground water, effluents pass filtering the ground, and its layer under aeration field much larger than the well with drainage.
The area of the well can not handle the amount of waste that takes aeration station.
Positioning the filter pit must be at least 2 meters from the reservoir sedimentation. This is necessary in order to eliminate the progress of soil and foundation deformation in the event of accidental leaks and flooding
Well worth installing on the same principles as the precipitation tanks, excluding the concreting of the bottom of the tank. At the bottom of the well in addition to the need to put a pillow of sand gravel, gravel, or other filter structure. Standard power precoat filter in the well is calculated from the absorbency of 1 m or more.
In order to increase its capacity, you can supplement a filtration pit lateral drainage. For its arrangement septic lower concrete ring must be perforated.
You can find models of rings that already have holes, but they are hard to find. It is therefore advisable to make their own holes using punch
This process is best done at the surface, until the ring is omitted in the pit. It is also necessary to make an opening for the overflow of water from the sedimentation tank, it must be placed a little lower than the previous overflowing.
Walls and joints of the filter must be well braced, but there is no need to seal them. Combining modulations can dig construction.
The first ring must sprinkle the outside rubble, to the junction with the second segment. The rest of the volume can be filled with soil from the infield.
Step # 6 - the process of preparing to launch
If the temperature in winter drops below 30 degrees, it is necessary to prepare the insulation for the inner manhole covers. Since the container itself located below freezing, it does not require additional insulation.
For heat insulation cover it is necessary to take the foam and cut a circle that fits the internal diameter of the small concrete ring.
The foam is practically not subject to decay and will last for many years. It was convenient to extract it to test a septic tank, it is possible to make a hole in the middle, where the stick nylon rope. On the back of the foam need to tie a rope to the short and narrow plank, and the other end to leave
Next, you need to cut the cover itself. For this fit the usual plywood of sufficient strength. For it is possible to fasten the door handle in order to make it easy to open. Similarly should insulate the inner cover of the second tank deposition and drainage wells.
Before using the septic tank, the first precipitation tank must be filled with water to 1/4 of its volume. The filled container pour biopesticideWhich helps septic tank will reach its full capacity.
After these steps, you must close the hatches.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The video shows the process stages mounting the two-compartment septic tank:
How does a septic system:
If the construction of a septic system of concrete rings carried out in compliance with the rules, it will last for 20 years.
We can not forget about the rules of operation and produce services in a timely manner. The pipes are made of plastic, so they are easily damaged. Strictly forbidden to place the equipment or a car in the place where the tanks are located.
You are doing the construction of a septic tank on the site? During the work you have any questions? Ask them in the comments to this article - we'll try to help you in finding the right solutions in this situation.