Installation of floor heating is possible in areas with high ceilings. Most often, they are mounted in the bathroom, but a warm floor under the tile can be installed over the entire area of the apartment.
There are several ways of heating, which should be selected individually, depending on ceiling height, state of the wiring and the water pressure in the apartment or a country house. The most popular heating mats that are easy to install.
In this article, we looked at the basic rules of laying cable and infrared heat-insulated floor. And led a detailed briefing on the arrangement of the heating system under the tile using a heating mats. Material is provided with step by step photos and videorekomendatsiyami specialists in laying of floor heating.
The content of the article:
- Variety of floor heating
The basic rules with underfloor heating installation
- Rules laying of cable underfloor heating
- Rules laying infrared heat-insulated floor
Guide to installing an electric floor heating
- Step # 1 - installation of insulation under electric field
- Step # 2 - laying heating mats
- Step # 3 - cutting floor tiles
- Step # 4 - laying tiles on floor heating
- Step # 5 - varnishing the finished tiled floor
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Variety of floor heating
Before you start selecting a floor heating system, must take into account that they have limitations. Despite the fact that the heating system can completely replace the heating in the apartment, this can not be done according to the norms of the Russian legislation.
These limitations are due to a number of reasons:
- The apartments may only be used electric floor heatingAnd the massive use of such systems in the home increases the load on the electrical network.
- Mass or partial transition to electric heating leads to an imbalance in the heat supply system of the building.
Since the floor is not used as the primary source of heat in the apartment, it is possible to save its installation. Saving is laying the heating cable or film only in areas that are free of furniture.
So decrease of thermal energy, making it more economical in the long run, as well as a lump sum for the purchase of building materials and installation
In a private house the possibility of using this technology is much broader. Depending on the available energy sources can select the appropriate option between the water and electric heating view.
If the house is equipped with autonomous sources of electricity, such as wind generators or solar panelsDefinitely worth to opt for electric, ie cable or infrared, heating systems.
If electricity is supplied by power lines, the use of electric heating variant of private homes will be very costly. In that case it is better to opt for water underfloor heating. It will last about 35 years, after which require replacement.
Ceramic floor - a material having high thermal conductivity. Without the device warms up the system it causes a strong feeling cold
Laying of a heating system under ceramic tiles will provide a comfortable temperature for the legs. In addition, ceramics excellent conductor of heat
Underfloor heating systems are electric and water. The first type is divided into cable and infrared
To facilitate and accelerate the process of laying the heating cable is fixed reinforcing polymer network. sex work is controlled by a thermostat fixed on the wall
The group of electric underfloor include infrared systems, including film and carboxylic rod variants
Water underfloor heating system are arranged in the cement-concrete screed pipes through which coolant circulates
Since the water system can occur as a result of wear of the material pipe or irregularities in the packing, they do not like in high-rise buildings. In addition, the overlap of high-rise buildings are not designed for the weight of strong ties
water underfloor heating is controlled via the collector assembly fitted with a pump, safety valve, air vent or the listed devices for each ring
Reasons for the device warm floor under the tile
The construction of the electrical cable system
Fixing the heating cable in the construction of floor heating
Electric heating mat with a thermoregulator
Infrared heating system option
Pipeline water underfloor
Their limits in the application of water varieties
The collector node water system
The basic rules with underfloor heating installation
Despite the different principle of heating there are a few basic principles of installation of all types of underfloor heating under the floor tiles.
The first general rule is the removal of the old ties directly after disassembly of the coating. This will allow to win a few centimeters height of the room, which is especially important in homes with low ceilings or if the heater is installed in only one room.
The second basic rule is that the alignment of the surface. Any hollow or bulge and eventually bring down the warm floor. All garbage must be removed, and cracks and holes plastered over. Only then can you start waterproofing
For waterproofing, you can use special formulations such as water glass or bitumen. Particular attention should be paid to the bathrooms. When moisture through the coupler it will lead to the gradual destruction of the concrete. This is true for private homes and apartments.
After the waterproofing is necessary to make insulation. Its thickness is determined individually, depending on the height of ceilings and the level difference between rooms pilaf. The thinner layer of insulation, the greater the heat loss.
This will inevitably increase the cost of energy consumption for the floor heating. The installation of underfloor electric heating type of lack of insulation will cause premature production equipment resources
Another rule is the need to reinforce the floor under the tile.
For this purpose, finished reinforced with wire mesh thickness not exceeding 6 mm.
It is necessary to strengthen the ties and prevent it from cracking. Fragments reinforced mesh strung together with wire knitting
Mixtures with a basis of gypsum can not be used for floor screed pouring under the tile. They are too fragile and not suitable for the pressure. In addition to the fragility they do not have the right to engage with the tile adhesive properties.
It is necessary to use leveling compounds such as self-leveling floor. They give the best effect, as the surface turns flat and suitable for laying tiles with a minimal consumption of mortar.
Rules laying of cable underfloor heating
Before installing the new equipment, which will create a load on the wiring in an apartment or a house, you need to make sure that the wiring will sustain it. First you need to make a layout, which will run electric mats.
When planning the apartment to exclude lining in locations permanently installed large furniture without legs, plumbing fixtures and appliances. This is due to the fact that electricity creates a magnetic field that will interfere with household appliances.
It is impossible to carry out laying of floor heating under the tiles where the installed toilet, bathroom and shower. In these places a high risk of moisture and short circuit
When planning and do not run an electric heater at the locations of water and gas pipes.
Determination of the power cable section and wiring in the home
The minimum distance of each wall should be less than 10 cm. You also need to exclude areas where the installed furniture. Area for installation of mats is calculated by deducting from the total area of the sum of square meters, which will be produced by the installation.
The resulting number is multiplied by 140 W, if the floor is not used as the primary source of heat supply. If you plan to use for heating only the floor, then you must multiply by 180 watts.
electrical cable or mats can be purchased on the basis of the data obtained for heating the floor covering.
As for the wiring, it is necessary to calculate the total power of devices that are used in the apartment. This information you can find instructions to technology, but also duplicate it on the device.
The resulting total power needs to be adjusted by multiplying by a factor of 0.8. This amendment is the fact that all the devices will not work in the apartment at the same time. Based on the data of this table can define the desired cross section of copper cable
Aluminum is not suitable for the wiring of the house where the heating installation of flooring system is planned. This is because copper has a better thermal conductivity. According to the table also need to determine the current and put the machines on the electricity meter.
If the wiring in the apartment does not meet the specifications, it must be replaced prior to installation of the heating cable or mat. If this is not done, then the apartment will be periodically turned off the electricity, and then begin to melt outlet.
Ultimately, this will lead to a short circuit and fire. It is dangerous and you should not skimp on safety, especially if the house or apartment are made of combustible materials. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the arrangement of the wiring diagrams in the apartment and recommendations for its installation with their own hands. For this follow the link.
Installing mats and installation of control systems
The process of installing the electric mat is easier and faster than a cable assembly. Their enough to accommodate the heating area, which was determined by compilation scheme.
The cable will have to be laid on the mounting tape, which is a metal fasteners, fixed in the floor screed. When laying the cable to do the turns of the same width
This will provide a uniform level of floor heating surface. During installation it is not recommended to do the cable breaks.
After the laying of the cable must be installed thermoregulator. It fulfills an important function - to maintain the desired temperature of flooring.
This enables to reduce power consumption, since heat is periodically turned off when the set temperature is reached. If the temperature sensor slide lock mode predetermined by the user, the heating is automatically switched on.
To mount the control unit must be drilled in the wall opening required diameter. Close to unit mounting location must be a source of electricity. This may be a socket
The hole should be located 30 cm above the floor surface. Downward from the vertical channel openings prodalblivaetsya where corrugation is set for a temperature sensor.
The opposite end of bellows must be placed between the turns of the heating cable at equal distances. If you do not comply with this rule, the sensor readings will be high.
When connecting the heating cable to the control unit you need to follow the instructions from the manufacturer. Before connecting the need to check the resistance of the wires by a special device.
Rules laying infrared heat-insulated floor
Despite the structural differences Infrared Heated floor mounted as simply as electric mats. But there is a difference between them. When connecting the film heater is not applicable sequential and parallel connection.
From the structural point of view, it is more reliable method, since the failure of the module separately, the others will continue to function.
Such a floor has an advantage, as it allows to reduce the power consumption due to its reduced consumption in comparison with electric mats. The film rolls are sold and bought in the quantity necessary for the heating area. The film can be cut, but only in those places where it is permitted by the company - producer
The film should be packed with a slight overlap, strictly following markup. Between the modules are fastened molar tape. This is a temporary attachment method, because after pouring self-leveling floor will no longer need to mount.
More features of the film heating type we reviewed another article.
Guide to installing an electric floor heating
The quality of coverage depends on the condition of the substrate to which it will be laid. The work should start with the dismantling of the old coating. It should be dismantled everything, including old screed.
To work need to bump. It is also necessary to think in advance how to transport and where to take out the old concrete. Landfill construction waste in garbage cans is forbidden
After removing the old coating the entire litter and the fine dust should be removed. Then you need to inspect the floor area and the presence of cracks need to be repaired. When the floor surface to be prepared, you can begin to waterproofing and insulation.
Step # 1 - installation of insulation under electric field
On the prepared substrate should be packed insulation. It is preferable to use cork sheets. They possess sufficient density and subside under the weight of the screed, as is the case with polystyrene.
The use of low density insulation will necessitate the disassembly of the finished floor of the damping material.
Cheap Styrofoam makes crack screed under tiles. This inevitably leads to peeling and damage the tile. First, there are small cracks, and then exfoliate tiles
Fixing heater to the surface occurs by sticking to the bitumen mastic. Through the use of this material it is achieved not only fixation cork sheets, but also waterproofing.
By sticking the quality also depends on the life of the underfloor heating. After waiting for 5-6 hours, you can move on to the screed. The thickness of the screed must be at least 3 cm.
When using the self-leveling floor is not necessary to align the rule, as is the case with self-implicated cement. After work, you need to leave the surface to dry completely, for about 3-4 days.
Step # 2 - laying heating mats
After curing, the inlet of the solution you are ready to install underfloor heating under tiles. To begin, you must chalk outline the place, which will not be installed mats. This will help to navigate and do not overspend material.
Step 1: Laying the mats with the power cable is made extremely easy. They are rolled on the ground in accordance with a pre-prepared circuit
Step 2: In place of turning a mesh mat system cut without touching the cable itself, and expand the band. Should turn so that the cable is not twisted
Step 3: On the base system arranged impose tile adhesive that is compatible with heating systems. The binder should be able to expand when heated, and take the old size during cooling
Step 4: The reverse side of the floor tiles carefully wipe lightly moistened to enhance adhesion and impose on it the glue. Then put the tile in the usual method
Unrolling floor heating mats
Cutting mats in turn place
Overlay tile adhesive on the system
floor covering device
After mounting mats need to proceed with the installation of the control unit and the temperature sensor. Connect the control unit only in accordance with the scheme and color marking of wires, which are provided by the manufacturer.
Down from the control unit is laid special corrugation, wherein a temperature sensor is placed. End of corrugations, which is located between the heating mats should be tightly sealed.
If this is not done, then by pouring the solution will penetrate inwards cure and cause the sensor useless. In addition to frozen mixture corrugation complicate replacement sensor
When the electronics assembly is complete, you need to turn on the system and test the results. If there are no defects in the heating system is not present, you can begin to fill the last layer of screed. Fill the required level should be noted on the wall, to make it easier to navigate.
The minimum thickness of the screed is 4 cm. During pouring self-leveling floor is necessary to monitor the uniformity of liquid distribution. roller can be used to move the surplus solution.
After pouring the need to wait a few days to dry completely. At this time it is necessary to control the temperature of the air in the apartment. If the air is dry and hot, there is a risk of cracking ties. For laying tiles can start only after complete drying of the self-leveling floor.
Step # 3 - cutting floor tiles
To work with the floor tile is perfect manual tile cutter. you need to prepare in advance for tile work with him. Tile presoaked if specified by the manufacturer.
If these recommendations are not present, it is enough to wipe the tiles with a damp cloth. It is necessary to clean the surfaces on which will move the cutting tool element.
Pre-cut tiles do not need. This is done as needed, as if side walls have a slight difference, the tiles have to be cut again
This is done as necessary, in places where the masonry close to a wall or corner. If out of the floor heating or water pipe, whereas there is a need to make a shaped opening in a tile.
For this purpose the manual cutter. Performed with the help of the holes may have jagged edges. To eliminate the aesthetic defect is necessary to process the edges with sandpaper.
Step # 4 - laying tiles on floor heating
To start work on the floor facing tiles is necessary to mark, which is largely determined by the type of masonry. The most common options are laying tile diagonal and straight.
Which way you choose depends on the design of the interior and the geometric features of the room.
After partitioning the need to dissolve a small amount of adhesive in the container with water. The adhesive mixture is required to be thermally stable. Glue is applied to the prepared substrate with a notched trowel. Under the tiles should be no voids, as these sites are vulnerable to the point of pressure that will tile into disrepair
On top of the adhesive solution and placed aligned tiles. Periodically check that there are no tilt. This is done using a spirit level.
Level must not be longer than 60 cm, since the greater length of error indications is increasing. In order to comply with an equal distance between the tiles need to use plastic crosses.
Their standard size is 2 mm. If the tile is large, you can use a larger size. Tic regulating height cleaned, and those that border on four tiles are not demountable after laying, and are hidden by grouting.
For grouting use special compositions, painted to match the wall tiles. for grouting work can only be done after curing of the adhesive solution.
Step # 5 - varnishing the finished tiled floor
To save a tile in the original form, you need to take care of lacquering. This simple procedure will prevent the need for replacement of tile.
Especially important for varnishing matt tiles, which is often used for flooring in the bathroom, so it does not slip.
The varnish should be applied with the help of the flap tissue, which does not leave scraps of thread. When applying you need to avoid the appearance of bubbles and streaks. You should begin with the most distant corner of the room from the entrance
When the first coat of varnish applied, it is necessary to open the window in ventilation mode, and close the door to the room. After complete drying, which occurs after 6-8 hours (depending on the varnish composition), it is necessary to repeat the procedure again.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How to mount the control unit:
How to lay floor heating in rooms with little heat loss:
What happens if you do not fix the heater:
What to look for in the design of the house:
Proper installation of underfloor heating systems for laying ceramic floor significantly prolong the service life. It is necessary to carefully choose firmu-manufacturer of heating systems.
Most often it comes down electronics, which is easy to replace and continue the use of underfloor heating. In the event of failure of the control unit, the new would be difficult to obtain if the manufacturer ceases to produce heating system. Temperature sensors are easier to pick up, as they are interchangeable in many models.
You have arranged in his home a warm floor under the tile? Which system for heating you use? How much are you satisfied with the result, and if you come across any type of damage? Share your experiences installation and operation of underfloor heating - leave your comments below this article.