Drill chuck - problems with replacement, repair and ways to solve them
In electric drills for reliable fixation of drills, a special device is used, which is called a chuck. In household drills, the most widely used cams are cartridges. When used intensively, they can fail and require replacement or repair. During these operations, problems often occur. So how do you remove the cartridge from the drill shaft, disassemble it into its component parts and change it to a new one?
1The role of the cartridge in the secure fastening of the drill bit
- 1.1Why and when should I change?
2How to replace the cartridge with a drill with your own hands?
2.1Replacing the conical view of the part
- 2.1.1Video: how to remove a cartridge with a cone at an electric drill?
2.2Replacement of reverse threaded chuck
- 2.2.1Video: how to remove a cartridge with a reverse drill or screwdriver?
- 3Disassembly of the chuck chuck with a quick-action clamping nut
4Possible problems with the cartridge when the drill is working: the causes, the description and the ways to solve them
- 4.1Detail flies
- 4.2The jaws were jammed
The role of the cartridge in the secure fastening of the drill bit
Clamping drill chucks for household drills are available in three versions:
The body of the key cam-holder is made in the form of a hollow hardened cylindrical bushing (collet), on the outer surface of which there is a rotating adjusting cage.One side of the cylinder is attached to the drive shaft of the drill, and on the other hand are cams (petals) for fastening the cutting tool (drills, taps, scanners, etc.). When the adjusting cage is rotated, the steel jaws move by means of a special thread along the guides. If they come close to each other - the drill is clamped. If they diverge from each other, the tool is released. Convergence and distance of the cams depends on the direction of rotation of the cage. A reliable fixation of the drill is ensured by tightening the cartridge holder with great force. For this purpose, a special key or a quick-clamping clutch is used - on the quick-action clamping chucks.
The key helps tighten the drill bit and easily unscrew the adjusting clip. In the cam clamping chucks fixed drills of different diameters, having a cylindrical shank. Most often cartridges of household electric drills are designed for drills with a diameter from, up to 10 mm or from, to 13 mm.
Why and when should I change?
The clamping device must be able to drill holes with an acceptable accuracy.But over time, the seats on the shaft and the cams wear out, the cartridge starts to beat. That is, the working area of the drill starts to move from side to side when rotating, and the hole is drilled with deviations both in place and in diameter. The wear of the cams does not allow the drills to be fixed securely, and they stop at the load.The only solution is to change the worn out cartridge to a new one.
How to replace the cartridge with a drill with your own hands?
To mount the cartridge on the drive shaft of the drill, a threaded joint or Morse cone is used. Visual inspection of the electric drill does not always help to tell you how to fix the drill chuck. The marking inscription on the cartridge can inform about it: it breaks out on its surface.
Replacing the conical view of the part
The Morse cone size (according to GOST 9953-82) consists of 9 values: from B7 to B45. The larger the number after the letter B, the greater the diameter of the cone.
Thus, having found the marking "B" on the surface of the cartridge, it can be concluded that it is a device with a conical mounting base. With this method of attachment, the cartridge is easily removed. It is enough to use a knockout and a metal hammer.
Video: how to remove a cartridge with a cone at an electric drill?
Replacement of reverse threaded chuck
To fix the drilling clamping device on an electric household drill using a threaded joint, two types of threads are used:
- inch (for foreign models);
- metric (from Russian manufacturers).
The marking of this type is put on the surface of the chuck body: -13 1/2 - 20UNF or, -13 M12x, 5.
The reversible threaded chuck for fixation has a screw with a left-hand thread. This nuance needs to be known by removing the broken cartridge.In order to get to the screw head, it is necessary to drown the jaws in the collet to the point of failure. Once the screw head is visible, you need to harden the cross screwdriver to unscrew it to the right clockwise. Then, in the jaws, hold the Allen key and sharply hit it in the counterclockwise direction. After the cartridge has been torn from its place, it will easily be unscrewed.
Video: how to remove a cartridge with a reverse drill or screwdriver?
On other models, there are other options for attaching the cartridge to the thread. In some cases, the cartridge is twisted entirely from the threaded end of the shaft. In other cases, the screw can be fixed with a special thin key using a narrow slot.The main difficulty lies in the fact that when you turn away to turn the cartridge from its place.Sometimes it is very difficult to do this. In any case, to remove the cartridge you need: a metalwork tool, the necessary skill and patience.
Disassembly of the chuck chuck with a quick-action clamping nut
To clean the cams, lubricate the moving parts and threads of the cartridge, it must be disassembled. Disassembly is necessary to repair and replace parts that are out of order. Here is a short list and sequence of operations for disassembling the cams:
- The removed cartridge with the cone part upwards, covered with wooden linings, is clamped in the vice for the coupling.
- With a gas wrench, the nut with the notches is gently unscrewed.
- The bearing is pulled out. The puck is removed.
- The cartridge is removed from the vice.
- The adjusting clutch is twisted from the base with hands. If it does not succumb (wedged), then the cartridge is turned over and again squeezed in the vice by the clutch. A bit of engine oil is poured onto the threaded part of the coupling and the base. Then, with a gas wrench, the base of the coupling is skilfully unscrewed.
- If there is a retaining ring or nut at the bottom, they are removed.
- Cams are pulled out of the guide rings and removed from the base cone.
- All details of the drill chuck are carefully inspected. In case of identification of worn, deformed or broken parts, they are culled and replaced.
- Assemblage of a chuck is conducted in the reverse order. At the same time, all moving parts are lubricated with a special grease. It is best to use the lubricant that the manufacturer recommends.
The procedure for dismantling the cartridges of other models may be different. It depends on the type of cartridge, its design and the manufacturer of the drill. To independently disassemble the drill chuck, you must meet three conditions:
- to have the necessary set of tools;
- possess locksmith skills;
- be a man with a stable, balanced mind.
Possible problems with the cartridge when the drill is working: the causes, the description and the ways to solve them
To avoid problems with the drill, you need to be able to work correctly on it. Drill - a universal tool, with its help you can drill wood and metal, plastic and tile, stone and glass, concrete and brick. In everyday life, a medium-power rotary drill is usually used. It is equipped with a cartridge system SDS, which was invented in the firm BOSH. The SDS cartridge is not very precise, but it is ideal for drilling concrete, stone, brick. That is, those building materials where drilling is necessary with impact.
For more accurate drilling of metal and wood parts, it has a special adapter for fastening the clamping jaw or quick-action clamping chuck. Do not drill the milling work. The drilling chuck is not designed for lateral loading and will quickly fail. Of great importance is:
- the right choice of drill;
- correct sharpening of the cutting part of the drill;
- mandatory marking of the hole center with the help of a core.
It is necessary to skillfully use the choice of the required speed, feed, operating mode, depending on the material of the workpiece. All these factors directly affect the safe operation of the drill chuck.
The cartridge flies? This problem is quite often encountered even on new drills with the cone landing of the camshaft, when a deep hole is drilled. It is necessary to raise the bit to release it from the chips, and at that moment the cartridge flies off the cone. The position can be corrected by increasing the interference in the cone conjugation. To do this, the cartridge is heated in oil or oven to a temperature of 110 degrees and is put on a cold drill mandrel.
The jaws were jammed
The work of the drill always takes place in dirty conditions. This is dust, dirt, shavings, sawdust and other small debris. If the cartridge gets into the cartridge, this debris can cause jamming of the threaded joints, in particular, at the jaws. There is only one way out. It requires disassembly of the cartridge, cleaning and washing of moving parts. Before assembly, all moving parts are lubricated with lithol. Especially there is a lot of waste in the cartridge when drilling the ceiling surfaces. Here you can think about the protection of the cartridge half of a small rubber ball.
Beating the cartridge can be caused by different reasons. For example, the Morse landing cone is worn out. This can be checked using paint. Apply a uniform layer on the cone, the cartridge is inserted. Then, the trace that he left on the cone is removed and studied. Another cause may be uneven wear of the cams. In this case, they need to be changed. But more often they change the broken cartridge to a new clamping device.
In a skilled hand, a household drill works wonders. With its help holes in durable and soft materials are drilled. The chuck is an important part of the drilling machine. It provides the reliability of fastening the drill and the accuracy of drilling. Therefore, it is very important for the home master to be able to independently provide small repairs and replace this part of the device..