Home appliances much easier life to every busy person, but, unfortunately, it sometimes fails. And refrigerators are no exception. At one point, not tested, "white friend" suddenly breaks down.
Well, if he has already served his. But if the service life is far from over the best way out - an appeal to professionals who perform repair refrigerators. However, you can handle yourself in some cases.
The content of the article:
Classification on the basis of the action
- compression refrigerators
- absorption refrigerators
- Semiconductor type refrigerators
- Self Repair: what is possible and what is not?
- Common problems refrigerators
- Fundamentals of diagnostics and simple repairs
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Classification on the basis of the action
Inexperienced user it may seem that all cooling units arranged in approximately the same. However, this is not the case. By the principle of action immediately release three types of household refrigerators.
Before starting to repair their equipment need to know exactly how it should work. Therefore, let us consider each of these types in detail.
For cooling the unit cells in this case, a special liquid, which is convertible from the liquid to the gaseous form and back again at room temperature under certain conditions.
This so-called refrigerant. He pumped in a closed loop, moving through which performs the cooling process. This occurs as follows. Initially, the refrigerant in liquid form under pressure is injected into the evaporator.
Refrigerator - a complex machine. Unfortunately, you can repair it yourself is not always. If you have problems with the repair work, it is better to call a specialist
It has the shape of a coil, the cooling process was as efficiently as possible. The nozzle through which the refrigerant is supplied is called a spinneret.
In domestic equipment it is a small fragment of the capillary tube is not profiled. In industrial models that require large capacity, use profiled die.
After the refrigerant enters the evaporator, it starts to expand rapidly into a gas.
Thus it takes a certain amount of air from the heat which corresponds to its heat of vaporization. Thus the temperature in a well-insulated chiller or freezer is lowered and all that is inside, is cooled.
Most often, the kitchen is worth the refrigeration unit of the compression type. Its working principle is very simple. It will help to understand the scheme provided
Normal evaporation process will last only as long as the pressure within the evaporator does not rise. For this reason, the compressor continuously sucks refrigerant vapor and delivers them to the radiator.
It is another coil inside which a gaseous refrigerant is liquefied. At the same time it releases the heat transferred to the air. Next, fluid is supplied to the spinneret and the cycle is repeated.
That can be attributed to the advantages of such an arrangement? First of all, it is the efficiency of approaching 100%. In addition, the compression equipment cost-effectively and easily adjusted.
As a refrigerant used in such units is absolutely safe and chemically neutral compounds. The main drawback - the presence of detachable joints moving and rubbing parts.
Furthermore, the refrigerant circuit has a mechanical connection with the external environment, which requires high-quality seals. There is another significant unpleasant moment.
Compression units can not be a long time to be tucked into the idle state. By virtue of the design features of the circuit sharply increases the risk of micro-cracks through which subsequently leaked refrigerant
Construction units absorption type has some similarities with the compression apparatus. However, its main difference is the absence of friction or moving parts.
Consider the principle of operation of such devices. As the low-boiling refrigerant is used a composition which is highly soluble in high boiling liquid. The latter is called the absorber.
The main advantage of absorption aggregates is the durability and reliability. they are devoid of rubbing parts, all fluid flow within the structure by gravity (+)
Similarly it called and container, which contains a certain margin of concentrated coolant. Hence it enters the termonasos, which is vertically installed tube made of copper, which heats the electric coil.
Next, the refrigerant moves to the steam generator, basking electrocution. Here, the refrigerant evaporates and mixes with the vapor absorber.
The resulting mixture is moving in the reflux condenser. This special design of the radiator, wherein the absorber and the refrigerant are separated. Origin condenses and leaves the steam generator, and gaseous refrigerant directed to the condenser first and then by gravity into the evaporator.
Here there is a cooling process, similar to that which occurs in the compression units. After that has absorbed heat the refrigerant sucked absorber and the process repeats.
Absorption-type refrigerators are durable and can be tucked over the years and it does not work. Due to this they are willing to purchase houses and other buildings with seasonal residence
Thus, the main advantage of the absorption patterns - virtually unlimited duration due to the lack of moving parts. However, they are not economical, because consume approximately 1.5 times more energy than compression.
In addition, Frost refrigerators are quite bad and slow. Another significant drawback - safety.
As used herein the water absorber, and the refrigerant - ammonia. As a result, the circuit is a highly concentrated ammonia. When possible leakage is dangerous. Available in models that run on propane or isobutane, but it is even more dangerous.
Given that the absorption units can be kept switched off in the filled state indefinitely, they eagerly bought for use in homes with a seasonal residence.
Strong negative absorption chillers is wasteful energy consumption: models for cars can discharge the battery in a few hours. Because in some models of mobile switching system is used for gas, which is usually moving in a parking lot (+)
Semiconductor type refrigerators
It is common enough device, whose operation is based on the Peltier effect.
It consists in that the junction of dissimilar conductors by passing therethrough an electric current is warmed up in one direction and in the other - is frozen, the other compensating heating side. Thus it is possible to get the temperature to -40 ° C and even lower.
The operation of the refrigerator is a semiconductor Peltier effect. The figure schematically shows the operation of the semiconductor battery
However, the system has significant shortcomings. First of all, it is a high energy consumption. It is much higher than that of low economical absorption devices. Furthermore, the Peltier elements have a limited resource.
In this case, semiconductor refrigerators are insensitive to mechanical stress, quickly and effectively frozen products. If necessary, you can switch the direction of current that allows you to quickly defrost system.
The advantages of thermoelectric coolers include insensitivity to shocks, lack of refrigerant coil, which may leak from the appearance of micro-cracks in the pipes. They quickly thawed and also gaining the operating temperature
Self Repair: what is possible and what is not?
To repair your refrigerator, but not completely break it, you need to know exactly which parts of the system can be repaired on their own, and what better not to touch. In any refrigeration unit four circuits can be identified:
This includes proper cooling loop including the coils. This is the least suitable for self-repair of the unit.
Masters strongly do not recommend trying to carry out independent repair work in the absence of knowledge and experience in this area. Initiative can be very costly.
Improper repairs often ends with the need to buy a new unit.
It is here that most often occur breakage. Repairs often possible, but desirable experience in similar works.
You have to understand that self-repair will require replacement parts that are not always freely available. Most likely they will have to order in a specialized online store and some time to wait for delivery. For this reason, perhaps, more appropriate solution would be to call a specialist.
Thermostats of refrigerators with electronic control associated with the card, necessary for their repair skills and knowledge of an electronics. But mechanical thermostat can be changed personally (+)
It includes seal mounting flanges, caps, doors and suspension compressor and the like. Actually repair usually is simple and can be performed even the most inexperienced handyman.
Usually it is the adjustment of the door, seal replacement, fixing shelves. Special knowledge is not required here.
It is a circuit diagram providing the normal operation of the refrigeration unit. It includes wiring, several relays, motor, etc.
The electrical circuit of the refrigeration unit, especially if it is old, fairly simple. If you have some knowledge in the field of electrics, if necessary, you can correct almost any breakage
It is repairable. To work need a tester, a soldering iron and some knowledge in the field of electricity. almost any damage can be corrected in this system.
Common problems refrigerators
Before you diagnose the problem, you should decide on the type of its refrigeration equipment.
Absorption model to service are strictly prohibited. This is due to the high toxic hazard of leakage of refrigerant. Moreover, working with such equipment are extremely complex
Thermoelectric units seldom break. The most common failure - the end of the service life of the battery of thermocouples.
Replace it, most likely, does not make sense, because its cost is quite comparable to the price of the unit.
In addition sometimes these refrigerators burn contacts, he could even repair the novice master. More problems with compression models. If this does not work refrigerator, the reasons can be many. Let's talk about the most common.
When you turn on the device in the network does not work, perhaps, "blame" the power supply circuit. It includes socket, plug the power cord, plug contacts in the compressor compartment.
Perhaps the problem is in the protective relay or thermostat. The last to determine the cause must be "ping" tester. When breakage does not signal.
If the network provides the power fully intact, and does not turn on the compressor and runs at startup, but then stall, the problem is likely to launch protection relays.
The evaporator units is often the cause of problems lies in the compressor. This is a fairly sophisticated device, repairs are best left to the master (+)
In almost a similar situation with a working network to run the compressor takes three to five seconds, or it starts to work is not the first attempt to turn, you should search for a problem in the starting relay.
The unit freezes poorly, but regularly responds to signals thermostat. When the compressor is heated, shaking, the overheating protection. Thermal relay and start fully operational.
It is necessary to diagnose the operating winding of the compressor motor to detect inter-track circuit. If interturn short circuit occurs in the starting coil, then the compressor will not start at all. At the same time thermal and start relay are serviceable. In both cases, the engine needs to be replaced.
The design of the heat and the starting relay, combined in one unit, is typical for the majority of household refrigerators. Weak node sites are the contacts that must be periodically cleaned to remove dust and soot, and the core channel (+)
Another failure. The unit freezes very much, while the compressor is running without a break or a job terminates operation of thermal protection. Equipment almost does not respond to the thermostat, only turning the knob to "0" stops the compressor.
Last noise is much more than usual. In this case, the counter indicates that electricity consumption is much higher than usual volume. All this indicates a stuck starter relay. It is quite dangerous for the status of the compressor, because it leads to overheating and burn.
If the unit freezes bad thermostat at the same time is set correctly. By the time the compressor shutdown capacitor normally is warm, so that the arm has to withdraw.
Most often the problem lies in a faulty thermostat. It needs to be replaced. In some cases it is possible and to repair. Just broken thermostat and if the unit is switched on, but it freezes too weakly or strongly.
The so-called "drip" refrigerators often have problems due to blockage in the drainage system
The position of the thermostat knob is not responding. In this heating condenser and the compressor in normal hum.
The unit operates on the short cycle, which is characterized by frequent shutdowns of the compressor. At the same time it freezes poorly, and the capacitor at the time of the compressor off, do not have time to properly warm up. The reason for this failure - failure of the heat relay or thermostat.
The equipment operates on a long cycle, sometimes even continuously. The freezer frost appears at the tube portion, the refrigerant flow. When this opposite side there is no ice. The situation is stable and does not change.
The reason for failure in this case - refrigerant leakage. Most likely somewhere formed microcracks. Diagnosis should hold circuit with a view to detecting and refilling system.
When detecting refrigerant leakage should identify microcrack in tubes of the unit, to remove it by sealing problem place, and re-fill the refrigerator
In some cases, possible refilling freon. All this is not recommended to carry out on their own. If the refrigerator is not freezes, the cause could be a lack of refrigerant in the circuit. In this case, when you turn it on you can feel the strong vibration, the compressor comes knocking and ringing at work.
Self-repair can not be. In some cases, repairs can cost more than a new unit, you need to consider.
The equipment works only on a short cycle and at the same time a strong frost. Alarming sound of the compressor. It's too loud, as if sucking or sobbing.
The reason often lies in improper service unit. When filling refrigerant it was too much, which led to the submission of the compressor is not vapor, and the more concentrated "fog" of Freon.
Filling too much refrigerant is not allowed. "Wet" operation results in damage to pipes and damage the compressor, which may result in the purchase of a new unit
It is extremely dangerous to the integrity of pipes and compressor. So you need to urgently call the master. The unit freezes too much. So much so, that we have to put the thermostat box in the position of not more than 4.
When the compressor is rapidly heated and excessive noise may be present smell melting isolation. Thus behaves a weakened bimetal plate located in a heatproof relay.
Strong vibration, excessive noise of the compressor, but otherwise everything is normal. It test suspension compressor and adjust if necessary. If this does not help, then the reason lies in its increased wear.
We'll have to think about the replacement of the compressor. Too much frosting freezer indicates a problem with the integrity of the door or faulty insulation. In the latter case, the repair is extremely difficult or even impossible.
Fundamentals of diagnostics and simple repairs
Let us consider the most simple operations to be carried out to test the fridge. You should start with determining the quality of the mains voltage. It must strictly conform to 220 V. Smaller values may well be the cause of a failure in the operation of the unit.
It is necessary to examine the same and the power plug with a cord. Folds, creases, damage should not be. If the elements are heated or sparked a sure sign of trouble.
Start the refrigerator repair should be a visual inspection and diagnosis. so you can identify the problems that the owner did not even know
Checked the compressor terminals, which must be in working order. Then you need a tester to check whether sufficient voltage device receives from the network.
Making sure that it is of good quality, the device always unplug from the mains. Now you need to carefully inspect the compressor is located at the bottom of the unit. There should be no visible damage.
If a visual inspection of the returned no results, go to test the motor windings. For a start, disconnect the wire, guided by the markings on the terminals
To check the winding tester in ohmmeter mode switches. One end of the wire is attached to the tester, then the conclusions are verified alternately. Wires and steam diagnostics. In the circuit or damage of the winding will indicate the absence of motion arrows tester.
Next, the control circuit is checked. To do this, from the relay disconnect the wires and short them, and then check for contact between them and including a fork. The existence of such contact indicates that the relay, cable and sensor are serviceable.
If a problem will have to individually check each block. To test the temperature sensor it is removed and disconnected wires.
From the usual nail can be made for moving the stem relay. Normally, this piece is made of plastic and often breaks. The diagram shows how it can be done
Further, subject to review each of the wires, it is concluded in the presence of a fault detector circuit. It should be replaced. If the control circuit is operating normally, there are no breakages, checked the protection relay and the starter.
To access have to remove the cover. The old model is mounted on the latch, the new - on the rivet. They need to be carefully drilled out, and after inspection to fix the lid on the screws.
The most frequent breakdowns of the site - or jamming of the spring core in the coil, contact erosion or breakage of the stem. All of this may well be correct. To start the coil is removed from the latches, it is removed from the core and shaft with the contacts.
Next, it provides a thorough cleaning of all these elements. In the simplest cases it will be enough soft tissue with alcohol impregnation.
In more difficult to ensure the freewheel core will have to work even sandpaper or a file. We clean all the contacts.
If it turned out that broken rod, and it is often because it is a rod made of plastic, it can be replaced by a segment of a conventional nail. After the repair unit is going in reverse order, is put in place and connected.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How to replace the thermostat in the refrigerator:
Features "No Frost" system:
Roller-guide for replacement of the compressor:
Fix your refrigerator by yourself is not easy. This is a complex assembly work which requires special knowledge. Inexperienced master unlikely to meet all the necessary repair work correctly and without errors.
Unfortunately, even small inaccuracies, not to mention the major miscalculations can completely withdraw the device from the system. Then, no longer have to worry about repairs. It will be necessary to seek funds for the purchase of a new refrigeration unit.