Sunflower is a valuable agricultural crop for cooking oil on an industrial scale. Silage is prepared from this culture, it goes to cattle feed. Lack of Attention to the Fieldof sunflower sprouts
The peculiarity of sunflower cultivation is thatIn the initial stage, they develop more slowly than sprouts of grass .Most often this occurs when growing hybrids of highly productive, short-growing varieties.
Weeds compete with cultivated plants, taking away moisture and nutrients from them. The growth rate of weed is significantly ahead of the growth rate of sunflowers with prolonged low temperatures.
Fouling of the fields reduces the productivity of the crop during the growing season, provokes the occurrence of fungal diseases and infections.
It is especially important that the plantings last 1.5 months of , before the start of the mass growth of seedlings,
Special chemicals - herbicides - were invented to destroy weeds.
In modern sunflower cultivation, only registered, authorized preparations are used to eliminate dicotyledonous and cereal weeds. They are introduced before sowing or after sprouting .
Chemicals are classified as follows.
The drug is used in the period between sowing and seedling .Germination of sunflower seeds occurs in 1.5-2 weeks after sowing. At the beginning of growth, the level of illumination, moisture, and nutritional value of the soil is important, at which time the level of crop yield is laid. Early weed control will thankfully affect the outcome.
seeds. The basic agrotechnical rule for the cultivation of sunflower is the timely use of soil resources.
A pre-emergent herbicide is applied to the soil layer by harrowing or is sprayed with or before sowing. The drug inhibits the growth of weeds, destroying cellular metabolism.
One can call proven, widely used tools:
- Harnes .Means of contact exposure. Destroys annual weeds. It is brought to shoots. Consumption 3l per 1 ha;
- Pioneer 900 .The working component is acethlor. Before the appearance of sprouts, the solution is treated with soil. It quickly decomposes, succeeding in giving a positive result on the destruction of the shepherd's bag, stars, chicken millet, field thorns, chamomiles;
- Dual gold, Gezagard 50, Prometrin .Means Nitran and Treflan destroy cereal and dicotyledonous weeds, but do not affect the mustard field, drab, ambrosia. These drugs work well in combination with Hezagard 50. Sealing of herbicides into the ground is carried out by cultivators.
Post-emergence herbicides are also called harnessed .Their destructive action consists in blocking the synthesis of amino acids in weeds.
The preparations destroy the cereal, dicotyledonous weeds : flatfish, chicken millet, millet, sorghum, halinsong small-flowered, wild radish, dope, purslane, broomrape.
In the form of release means can be concentrated emulsion or in the form of water-soluble granules.
Herbicide is sprayed on sunflower crops in the period when weed seedlings reached a height of 10–12 cm , have 3-4 leaves. The tool works selectively, eliminating weeds, preventing its re-growth.
The Beckard 125 CE, Fyuzilad Super, Poast, Furore Super are considered as proven means.
Components of preparations
They are united by the active components that make up the composition in different variations and proportions:
- Hizalofop-P-ethyl .It acts selectively on weeds. The full effect gives in 7-12 days. Combined with drugs to destroy monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds. He himself effectively fights with monocotyledons.
- Tribenuron-methyl .It acts selectively, especially effectively copes with broadleaf grass, poppy seeds, radishes and many different weeds. It is easily washed off during a rain, watering. Does not conflict with fungicides, insecticides. Application is as post-emergence drug.
- Metolachlor .It acts selectively, low toxicity. Pre-emergence and post-emergence drug against monocotyledonous weeds, chamomile, purslane, galens.
- Quisalofop-P-tefuryl .The drug is selective for dealing with annual, perennial weeds, such as wheatgrass, sorghum.
- Imazetapir .Present in herbicides of systemic type. Selective exposure. Good and quickly cope with broomrape.
- Terbutilazine .Low toxicity to insect pollinators. Works as a contact soil herbicide. Fights with ambrosia.
The Golden Rules of Agricultural Engineering
It is clear that an important criterion for obtaining a high yield of sunflowers is integrated weed control.
For competent work with herbicides, experts recommend adhering to the following rules:
- Examine the characteristics of the acreage, the types of weeds. Soil preparations, as a rule, are used in fields with annual weeds.
- Determine soil type .The concentration and duration of action of the drug depends on:
- granulometric composition, clay, sludge require a high content of active substances;
- pH of the soil, the lower it is, the higher the rate of decomposition of substances;
- moisture and organic levels; fertile soils require more active ingredients;
- signs of the drug itself, the degree of solubility, the decay period.
- Properly to prepare the area for sowing .It should contain the minimum amount of plant residues for effective work with soil herbicides.
- View the weather forecast .Long-term experience of specialists has shown that the decisive factor in the effectiveness of a soil herbicide is the binding of the drug to soil moisture or precipitation within a period of not more than 20 hours after application. The moisture of the arable layer determines the behavior of the herbicide and affects the preservation of the crop up to 30% of the planned.
- Monitor the for the quality of the application of the treatment and the accuracy of compliance with the instructions. The air temperature should ideally be from +10 to 25 degrees, the wind speed is less than 4 m per second. The equipment must be in order, the sprayer adjusted.
Simple methods of mechanical tillage( harrowing, inter-row loosening) are not able to provide capital protection of crops from weeds. An alternative to herbicidal preparations has not yet been invented, they help to preserve and obtain a consistently high yield of sunflowers.