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Most mushroom pickers consider the most valuable gifts of the forest spongy mushrooms due to their fleshy and dense flesh, but we should not neglect another, not less numerous, group - plate mushrooms. Although the structure of their fungal body does not have such characteristics, and most often they are delicate and fragile, there are even very tasty mushrooms among these specimens, especially in marinated form. True, there are quite a few among the plate mushrooms and inedible, and even poisonous, species, which are of great danger, to take at least a pale toadstool. What is the difference between plate mushrooms and tubular mushrooms, and what kind they are, we'll talk about this today.
Characteristic features of the species category
As is known, in order to determine the belonging of mushrooms to a particular group, one must look under the bonnet. If the tubular representatives under it are a wide and dense sponge, the plate mushrooms, the name and photos of some will be presented below, cardinally differ in their structure: in the circle of the hat, from the leg and to its edge, there are thin plates, on which the aging disputes. The color and shape of the plates can be very diverse and depends on the particular variety, that is, the fungus. In some, they gradually go to the foot, others - firmly fused with it, and the third, even completely do not reach the legs, sitting solely on the bonnet.
There are also such mushrooms, in which between the plates there are bridges connecting them to each other, due to which a fine mesh net is obtained.
In addition, most plate-shaped fungi have a hollow stem. It can be as absolutely even, and decorated with a ring of remnants of a veil, which covers the hat of young specimens. As the veil grows, part of it remains on the stem, and forms a ring.
Almost all the plateted mushrooms excrete milky juice, and those who do not have it are popularly called "breadcrumbs".
Plate delicious mushrooms
Despite the fragile flesh, which often breaks during cooking, plate mushrooms are very good, especially in fried or marinated. But for the soup, unfortunately, they are rarely used for the same reason, except that honey mushrooms and some other species - they are more elastic and better than others keep their shape.
Among edible plate mushrooms deserve attention:
- Oyster mushrooms. One of those mushrooms with which you can do everything, right up to boiling, it's a pity that it grows only in the Far East. Hats are small, a maximum of 10 cm, of a beautiful lemon color, the plates smoothly pass over to fairly long, as for oyster mushroom, leg (about 9 cm), which first grows in the center, but with age is shifted. The flesh is white and tender, it smells of flour, but it becomes rough with old mushrooms.
- Mokruha is pink. Despite the nasty mucus, completely covering a light brown hat with rare dark spots, the mushroom is delicious in fried and salted form. The only thing to consider is that thick plates under the bonnet should still remain white, because in old mushrooms they turn black and the mushroom loses its market appearance, especially in boiled form.
- Spiderweb purple. One of those mushrooms that is difficult to confuse - his purple color immediately attracts his attention, but should not scare away, as the fungus is completely edible. A slightly convex bonnet from below has darker plates and stands on a high-necked leg. The flesh is the same color, it smells like skin.
- The raw russet is blue. It is characterized by a more fleshy hat with thick white plates, while the hat itself is painted in a beautiful blue-lilac color with a darker center. The white leg in the center is slightly thicker. The pulp is light, pleasant to the taste.
- Champignon wood. One of the most delicious mushrooms with an unusually fragrant and sweet light flesh, which breaks slightly at the break. From his "pale-faced brethren" is distinguished by a brown hat covered with scales.
Most plate-shaped edible mushrooms are more delicious at a young age, while old specimens often darken the plates, and flesh or becomes quite "crystal" and falls apart when trying to cut a mushroom, or it gets stiff and unpleasant smack.
Beautiful, but inedible "plates"
Beautiful-looking mushrooms do not always meet expectations, and sometimes can unpleasantly surprise your taste. There are such "fakes" among lamellar inedible mushrooms:
- The pear is olive-black. The large hat of the young fungus has the shape of a cone and is colored brownish green, then it straightens and becomes dark. Dense yellowish plates also darken with age. The stocky thick stalk is brown, in pits. The flesh is bitter.
- The milky person is neutral (he is also an oak or dodumnik). Growing, respectively, under the oaks, the hat is concave, red-brown, with a darker center and light rings. Leg of the same color. The pulp produces an oily aroma and bitter.
- Pylovistnik wolf. Outwardly very similar to oyster mushrooms, yellow-brown hairs in the form of growths are often found on trees. Distinguish from the edible oyster moss can be on plates: they are wide, and have a jagged edge. The very cap is covered with a felt skin with small warts. The flesh is very stiff and bitter.
- The fiddle. The mushroom is similar to a pepper mushroom: a cap with a funnel in the middle is covered with a velvety creamy skin, the edges are tucked. The short leg is white, and the plates are rare, while the mackerel has a longer leg, and the plates under the hat are thick. The flesh is thin and caustic.
Inedible fungus often gives off its smell, so it will not be superfluous to "sniff" the found treasure.
Dangerous for health mushrooms with plates under the hat
As already mentioned, there are many poisonous mushrooms among the plate-like fungi, which can not be collected and used in any case. The sad consequences will be the use of such mushrooms:
- Entholoma is poisonous (it is also pink-plastid). A very beautiful mushroom with a thick tight stem in the shape of a club and a large pale yellow hat with a diameter of up to 20 cm. The wide plates are at first light, then reddish. The pulp is unpleasant, with a bitter smell.
- Raw Moira. A small cap (not more than 7 cm) is painted pink, the plates are thick, white with a light green-gray tint. Leg white, dense, eventually turns yellow. The flesh smells of coconut; in old mushrooms it simply has a sweet aroma, but with a pungent taste.
- Amanita porphyritis. The brown-gray hat is first convex, then becomes concave, covered with scales. Leg long, ringed from above. The light flesh smells unpleasant.
- An earth freckle. White with a lilac shade flat hat, swollen in the center. Leg thin, fibrous. The plates are bright, then darken.
Symptoms of poisoning may not appear immediately, or even completely absent at first, but dangerous toxins on in fact, they will already destroy your liver from the inside, so do not take risks and better leave such mushrooms in the forest.
Plateau mushrooms - one of the most numerical groups, which include both valuable for the kitchen specimens, and the most dangerous. Be careful when going on a quest so as not to confuse them, and pass by unfamiliar mushrooms. Health is more expensive than experiments!