When there is a failure of engineering systems in a private home, in time to make a joke: that's the hour of reckoning a few years of amenities. The failure of the sewage treatment plant as though life stops in the house - now there is no possibility to arrange a full cleaning, or wash, or wash.
Call a specialist is not always possible, so you have to repair septic TOPAS and maintenance themselves. Let us look at the septic tank device and the most frequent breakdowns that can occur.
The content of the article:
- Briefly the principle of operation of the station
Septic tank cleaning apparatus and technology
- Working in a continuous current mode liquid
- Phase reverse cycle
How to avoid failures?
- Removal of accumulated sludge chambers
- Purification of all elements of the device
- Estimation of the device for water quality
Breakdown of the treatment plant and methods of their correction
- Flooding of sewage treatment plant
- Tripping RCDs in the electricity supply and the problem
- Changes in water level in the broken station
- Operation Tips
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Briefly the principle of operation of the station
Getting to repair the treatment plant, you must have an understanding of the principle of its operation. The action of the device is based on the purification of liquid waste by using bacteria.
And if non-volatile system based on the work of anaerobic bacteria whose livelihoods possible in the absence of oxygen, treatment plant "Topas" It cleans waste through anaerobic and aerobic organisms.
The difference in the conditions of life of these microorganisms and affects the very different principle of operation of wastewater treatment devices.
Different models TOPAS station may vary in size, performance, ability to process a certain amount of wastewater per unit time (the reset component volley) of the presence of the drain pump for removing purified water or its absence, the installation depth (e.g., model "Long" designation are connected to the pipe, which lies at a depth less than 0.9 m)
In the complete absence of oxygen fermentation waste mass produced anaerobes. The process occurs in the first compartment of the treatment plant. Then settle and fermented waste water at the disposal of aerobes which are in the next three compartments of the system.
Aerobic microorganisms more quickly digested and processed suspended particles and impurities that are found in the effluent, but they require a constant flow of oxygen. Further, oxygen needed for the oxidation weight. Aeration effluent provides an electric pump, so operation of the device without power supply is impossible. Read more how to work aerobic and anaerobic bacteria for septic tanks.
Septic tank cleaning apparatus and technology
The capacity of the septic tank is divided into four independent reservoir, and each performs a specific function.
Interconnected chambers connected so that under vigorous admission effluent purification process is accelerated, and when a small - becomes more efficient due to distillation reusable waste.
Since household wastewater inflow of irregular, this feature is very important for high-quality and smooth operation of the station.
Performance septic selected based on the number of permanent residents in the house and the water flow rates. More people cleaning station can serve only short-term
Working in a continuous current mode liquid
In the case of continuous flow of sewage, the technological process is as follows:
- By the feed pipe (1) discharges into the first receiving chamber (A) (or, as it is called surge tank). There they mixed with the waste entered previously, there is a settling of larger particles. Once the sewage reaches a certain level, the sensor is triggered.
- Automation includes airlift (3), which pumps the effluent through a filter that performs rough cleaning (2) and the collector of hair into the second chamber (B). Also included and a compressor (7), the feed air.
- In the aeration tank (second chamber B) drains via a biologically active sludge biological treatment are: large particles are broken into smaller organic aerobes processing occurs. Bubbles of oxygen injected here together provide mixing wastewater with activated sludge and the adsorber acts by linking the suspended particles.
- Boiling the mixture of sludge and waste water enters the third compartment - feeding tank (B), airlift pumps their recirculation (4) through the vessel in the form of an inverted pyramid. Here the treated water is separated from activated sludge.
- Separated from the liquid component of the sludge enters the stabilizing compartment (F) and the clarified water is discharged outside through the outlet pipe station device (9).
The station, with the exception of routine inspections and cleaning, does not require user intervention - all processes run automatically. Purified water can be discharged into the soil, absorption well, gutter, used for irrigation.
Visual inspection and evaluation of the technical condition of the sewage station should be carried out once a week
Once a quarter, a period of three months, to ensure the normal operation of the septic tank is cleaned air lift pumps and thorough rinsing nozzles
Under terms of the operation of the membrane compressor units, their replacement is done every two years
Insoluble mineral sediment settles to the bottom of the inlet chamber and the aeration tank cleaned once every five years
Visual inspection station
Cleaning and rinsing nozzles airlifts
septic tank and compressor spare parts
The drain pump for pumping sludge
Phase reverse cycle
If the system receives insufficient amount of waste for its continuous operation, the system operates in the recirculation mode. Once the level in the first compartment (A) reaches the minimum value, the float-switch is triggered (10).
The switch operates the solenoid valve and drains again tested entire purification process.
Recirculation takes place in the following sequence:
- In the receiving tank (A) extends aeration effluent.
- After aeration tank (B) effluents are pumped into the compartment stabilization of activated sludge (D). There precipitate is separated into fractions.
- Old yl heavy and sinks to the bottom chamber (T) and light, with the clarified effluent is sent back to the first chamber (A).
Once the water mirror in surge tank (A) reaches a maximum, the system switches to direct continuous cleaning mode.
It is considered the norm, when during the day the liquid waste are 5 treatment cycles. To plant could operate in recirculation mode, it must not be overloaded
How to avoid failures?
An important detail in the prevention of damage is the right installation of a septic tank Tapas. Moreover, as with any device or mechanism, a system for wastewater treatment requires regular checkup. It lies in the visual evaluation of the work carried out evacuation of accumulated sediment.
During the examination, you may have to remove blockages or hold a small repair TOPAS system. Regular preventive measures set out in the table.
Should not neglect each of the above measures. They are directly dependent on the successful operation of the device
The design of the septic tank is designed so that all the elements can be removed and wash, clean the filter of large impurities from hair gathered. Sludge from the stabilization chamber must be pumped out at least once a year. If the water in the water supply system of rigid, station cleaning should be carried out more frequently.
Resource sewerage equipment depends on regular monitoring and evaluation of the technical state of the system
The organization, which has taken on the responsibility for maintenance, must inspect the air filter of the compressor device
Airlifts carrying pumping wastewater from one chamber to the other, must be exempt from all kinds of clogs: hair, large accumulations of insoluble fractions
If the sewage station is equipped with an alarm system is checked at each inspection its performance
During routine maintenance of the chamber for storing the solid precipitate, it is evacuated fecal pump
During the execution of works on routine maintenance check operation float switches
In the formation of the inner surface of overly powerful sludge produced cleaning with flushing
When disposing of the clarified and disinfected waste water through the filter is carried out intermittently well pumping solid precipitate with precoat filter surface
Regular assessment of technical conditions
Inspection and flushing of the air filter
Cleaning airlifts from possible blockages
Removal of sludge stabilizer
Check float switches
Wash the walls inside the station
Pumping of sediment from absorbing well
Removal of accumulated sludge chambers
The longer the running apparatus for cleaning drains, the greater the content therein and sewage sludge, the more contaminated filter of the compressor. Therefore, the equipment requires regular cleaning.
All work is done in a certain sequence:
- Disconnecting the device from the power supply. This will allow sediment to settle to the bottom and give the opportunity to safely clean the compressor filters.
- Spun screw compressors with lids, to have access to filters. The filter in the form of a foam pad is removed and shake. If it is heavily soiled, then washed under running water and dried. The cover is returned to the place and twist.
- Within 15 minutes yl settles and can begin pumping. For this drain pump lowered to the bottom of the sludge chamber and evacuated stabilizer precipitate until the water level drops to 50 cm.
- Further purification is carried aerotank chamber. Yl pumped from the bottom, water reducing mirror 15 cm.
Fully pumped activated sludge is not necessary, in fact it helps to purify sewage.
The consistency of the deposited sediment resembles thick cream, but the usual drain pump copes with his work. Evacuated from the septic tank sludge can dry and be used to feed plants
Purification of all elements of the device
The next step - cleaning filter for air lift and major factions:
- Before removing hoses Mamut pump and a filter, one of the label tape tubing and pipe to which it is attached to further prevent any confusion (they have different productivity).
- Disconnect the flexible tubing from the pump tube. If she had not removed, the junction is heated.
- After removing the air lift pipe and purged under pressure of water or air.
- Recovered filter large fractions. It is washed out, shake out the collected dirt in a bucket, clean the hole from the clogged hair in them, washed the inside filter.
- Then take out and clean the hair trap.
The final stage - pressure washing walls and tubes station, collecting floating debris. Before you begin, close compressors cellophane to protect them from water. Irrigate start from the upper elements.
Using a special tool - a colander may be tied to a long strip - collect debris from the runoff surface
Good water pressure, which is able to wash out the old sediments, provides a high pressure apparatus.
Assemble the system in reverse order. Hose marking can be left for future maintenance. Following cleaning can be carried out after 6 months.
Since the volume of the contents decreased after cleaning station, it needs to be filled by pumping the water up to the normal operating level. The chamber is filled up sludge stabilizer outputting openings aeration - gravity to exit the setup
Estimation of the device for water quality
Functioning cleaning device output gives substantially pure water without extraneous impurities and odors. It can be used for watering lawns, flower beds, gardens. If the water flows out of the device is cloudy, this indicates its poor cleaning.
The culprit for this may be a small work station term (up to one month): new equipment is not It has a sufficient amount of biologically active sludge, the major role in cleaning drains. Faster set biological balance by adding the activated sludge from the plant is already running.
Sometimes it is also due to changes in external conditions: the sharp decrease in temperature, indicates an increase in the acidity or pH of wastewater discharge therein chemical means (e.g. chlorine). Typically, when the removal of the causes of the situation will normalize itself.
If turbidity effluent coming there permanently, then the most likely reasons are the increase in the amount of waste water, inadequate aeration. The latter is sometimes happens because of the damage distribution pipes and leakage of oxygen.
water treatment quality can be determined visually by selecting sample. For this purpose from the operating device to the aeration tank compartment gaining the bubbling liquid in a container from glass of about 1 liter. Properly operating installation will have a ratio of the settled sludge to the clear water 2: 8.
If the sludge is less, the installation is not yet fully operational or under-loaded wastewater. If more, then it may mean that the system can not cope with a large amount of liquid household waste or a float switch is set in the compartment is low and does not occur in the switching mode recycling.
Selected mixture is allowed to stand for half an hour. By this time, the activated sludge settles and rises to the top and clear water
Breakdown of the treatment plant and methods of their correction
Virtually all damage the pumping station are shown increased levels of effluent in the receiving compartment. Raising the level activates the alarm float, thanks to which the alarm is activated - bell or a light signal. Thus, the user is aware of the danger of flooding of the system and of untreated waste water outside the device.
Flooding of sewage treatment plant
First of all, it is necessary to check, possibly clogged or cold channel for removing treated effluent from the apparatus. If not, then look for the cause of flooding the station you need based on the type of equipment. It may be a gravity drainage system or exit the forced evacuation.
The forced evacuation systems models may be a problem in breakage of the drain pump or is stuck to the float switch. To check the operation of the pump it is removed and connected to another outlet. If the pump is OK, but after connecting to the station is not included, it is likely the case in the float switch - it must be replaced.
Flooding of septic TOPAS often requires major repairs and it is the most common problem. Upon detection of the first problem that needs to be done - disconnect the equipment from the mains, remove compressors, dry them, as well as all electrical components plant during the day
The following problems may be common to gravity and forced models. Check whether the liquid is pumped from the receiving compartment in the aeration tank. If not, the culprit of this is the fault of airlift.
The causes of failure can be as follows:
- damaged tube airlift;
- scored airlift main pump;
- faulty float switch;
- damaged membrane compressor which supplies air to the airlift.
Breakdowns are eliminated by replacing damaged elements or procleaning clogged portions.
Tripping RCDs in the electricity supply and the problem
If the station is activated when starting RCD (residual current device), the reason may lie in the compressor or damage to the drainage pump, float switch. It is also necessary to check the wiring, sockets.
Malfunctions of the installation can also be caused by long-term power outage, and then there the probability of overflow tank and the emergence of odors in connection with the beginning of the development of anaerobic microorganisms. If the mains voltage drops within 3% of the nominal value, it is necessary to establish a stabilizer.
Changes in water level in the broken station
TOPAS wastewater treatment system is not desirable to leave a long time without a job.
But if this happened, and it was discovered that the water level in the tank changes, the possible malfunctions may include the following:
- Breakage of sanitary appliances, which leads to water leakage. It is necessary to find the source of leaks and repairs or replacement.
- Damaged enclosure. If the problems are small, the body can try to solder, if not, it is necessary to turn to professionals for help, and they will replace the damaged section. And well, if you can do in repair, as replacement of the entire body will be costly.
- Improper installation and as a result, flooding rain or flood water.
- station tank should be installed so as to cover the ground rose above 15 cm.
The problem could be as badly organized out of purified water from the system. Aggravate the situation of poor soil drainage is poor bandwidth.
Guided by the scheme should be deleted less likely causes of breakdowns and keep track of potential problems and ways to address them
Violation of the rules of operation of depriving the consumer of the right to warranty service. They also said that maintenance and repair only specialists can WWTP TOPAS service enterprises or individuals, study the instructions for installation and instruction on the technique of the past security.
Also on our site there is an article on how to properly maintain septic Tapas winter - read Further.
For long-term and successful use of the station need to conscientiously implement the recommendations, namely:
- not allowed to make structural changes to the station apparatus;
- unacceptably high pour chemicals, agents containing chlorine (in large quantities), the water obtained from the regeneration treatment systems for drinking water;
- It is prohibited from discharging into the sewer system construction waste, biologically degradable compounds, food residues and cleaning mushrooms, pet dander.
Despite the multiple prohibitions, the manufacturer admits it is a reasonable use of modern detergents and disinfectants:
- allowed to dump toilet paper into the sewer system;
- effluent can be discharged washing machines and dishwashers, not containing chlorine;
- It is allowed no more than once a week, pour a small amount of cleaning products for sanitary ware, kitchen equipment, sanitary ware;
- Kitchen sinks are allowed to drop without any restrictions.
Also, during a power outage need to minimize water consumption, to avoid overflow chambers and the spill polluted waters.
Winter cover septic tank must be cleaned from the formation of snow cap to compressors, discharge air, have access to it. Insulate the device must be at a temperature below -25 ° C
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The planned treatment plant TOPAS is available is described in the video:
Videos on the repair station after the flood:
Independently carry out cleaning and repair of VOC TOPAS is possible. But to be able to use the warranty service, it is better to ask the manufacturer or retailer, which is allowed to carry out work by the users. Otherwise, interference in the system could deprive the legitimate rights to the free service calls.
I have questions after reading the material? Or have already had occasion to deal with the breakdown of a septic tank and you have something to suggest to our readers, leave, please, comment, share experiences, ask questions, and we will try them respond promptly.