The device of washing machines is diverse. However, the details are typical. The device of the washing machine is difficult to people who have not tried to look inside. To reassure readers, we note that the body inside is almost empty, the lion's share of the weight is brick( or occasionally other cargo).This means that the volume of parts for repair has decreased, the mass has decreased. Now the repair does not look so scary.
Typical device washing machines
Do not consider the review as a repair guide for washing machines. But after reading the article, it will be possible to gather useful information for the work, which will allow you to repair washing machines yourself.
Let's look at the drum modifications, others today already look archaic. Activator insanely popular in South America and selected countries of the world, but in the Russian Federation are considered a sign of poverty. Partially the conclusion is true. In such machines it is possible to use the same water with diluted detergent for a long time, washing the white things first and gradually moving to the black ones.
Frequent types of faults relate to major nodes. Any drum washing machine consists of the following units:
- Tank with a drum. Things are not put in the tank. Tank of plastic and steel, without holes, most often round, springs cling to the tank.
- Engine. Drive belt or straight, the meaning does not change. The drum moves thanks to an electric motor. It is important that the axis with the centrifuge attached remain airtight. Replacing bearings will require complete disassembly, including the tank( and repair of the washing machine drum).
- Shock absorbers would not work without artificially weighting the tank. Standardly on top and in front the usual, correct form stone is fastened. This can significantly reduce the level of vibrations. When repairing washing machines yourself, if possible, do not touch the depreciation system.
- The tray for detergents is considered a separate device, although it represents a simple box. In the cycle on the hot water wash, the thread washes the powder and softener out of the tray( located in the common cell).Under the prewash put their own reagent. On the remaining segments of the cycle, water flows directly into the tankIn particular, there is nothing in the tray when rinsing. Air conditioning is added by the cell overflow method. Smart washing machines dispense it, others just pour it poured by the hostess.
- A self-leveling pump in washing machines is often not available. Water comes from the riser under its own pressure. Drain pump is present, requires regular cleaning so that the thermal fuse does not burn out or knock out. Repair of washing machines ends with checking such details as the pump.
- The work is controlled by the programmer, which sets the mode of the engine operation. If necessary, start heating.
- TEN is often located at the bottom of the tank. It is similar to that used in water heaters with a slight difference: there is often a built-in overheating protection system, disposable or reusable. The operation is controlled by a thermostat. We suppose that there is a time relay inside the smart washing machine: the amount of water known to the on-board computer is dialed into the tank, and the latter calculates the operating time of the heating element by specific heat capacity in order to bring the parameters to the desired values. Of course, this method works only in the absence of scale. In reality, a temperature sensor is used. The cycle time is calculated approximately, the function Fuzzy Logic does determine the parameters only after rinsing.
- The electronic unit provides interactive user interaction. Monitors the progress of the cycle.
Engine washing machine
The engine detects a forward stroke and reverse. To switch are two relays. Just swapping power terminals. Regardless of the type of motor, the windings are connected in series, and brushes enter the circuit. Speed control is through a triac, which regulates the amplitude of the supplied voltage. Collector motors are capable of operating at a constant current due to the division of the poles, but in washing machines the method is rarely used. It is useful to know that the two stator windings have three ways, leaving a chance to divide. This reduces the speed of rotation, but it reduces the inductive resistance of the motor to alternating current. The division of the windings is used only when supplied with non-rectified voltage.
If the motor is a collector( 85% of such washing machines), the triac mainly operates according to the method of full-wave phase control. In this case, the cutoff pulses cut off a certain segment from the positive and negative parts of the sinusoid. The effective value of voltage changes, which leads to a change in the rotor speed. If a DC collector motor is used, a diode rectifier is added to the circuit described.
A tachometer( or Hall sensor) is installed on the engine to control the engine speed. White pins( wire with white crib) are used to tap to the measuring circuit. This is how the rotation speed is monitored; a thermal fuse protects against thermal overheating. Usually in the role of bimetallic plate. The corresponding error code when triggered is displayed on the display.
TEN washing machine
TEN from overheating is protected by its own thermostat to set the temperature of the wash, the readings must flow to the external circuit. It is easy to understand: if there are only three contacts in the water heater - ground, plus, minus, the washing machine has more wires. Searches are carried out necessary devices. The earth should ring with the shell of the copper tube, there is a resistance between the contacts of the helix, which is according to Ohm's law from the condition that the voltage is 220 V( rms value), and the power is taken from the technical data. A typical resistance value is 28 ohms( 2 kW).The thermostat is removed, eliminating pinout difficulties.
Repairing the washing machine pump is needed when the owners forgot to clean the filter snail for a long time. There are stuffed hair and long threads. This is an asynchronous motor, and here a rare scheme is used.
This is a permanent magnet rotor. Often happens, the side of rotation of the engine is unimportant, because the pump is tangential. Water enters the center of the wheel and is thrown out through the blades. The direction of rotation - no difference. To prevent the winding from burning, a thermal fuse has been added inside. If the pump that is removed from the cabinet of the washing machine does not work, look at it first.
The Aquastop system of the washing machine
The story is incomplete without the Aquastop system, which is often ignored. If there is a bottom of the case, you will see a sensor of any type of water availability. When triggered, a signal is sent to the intake valve or simply to the connector located near the entrance to the housing. In the latter case, the inlet hose is equipped with wires leading to the riser to stop water in case of leakage. This is a great alternative to disposable powder hoses. Usually the walls are double, according to them the water from the supply path pours into the body. No matter where the hole in the tank or on the line, the sensor is triggered, it's in the bag. Of course, the system will not protect against the general flood if it breaks through the riser or mixer in the kitchen.
Programmer washing machine
Programmer often put mechanical. It is an axis with numerous "slow" and "fast" gears that refuel the engine, including reverse mode. Thanks to this detail, it is possible to organize the inverter control of the washing machine, when not the amplitude of the voltage supplying the motor, but the frequency changes.
The turnover period for slow gears is 60 minutes or more. Although the synchronous motor moves fast, the gearboxes significantly underestimate speed. As a rule, each gear 60 cams( protrusions of different heights).Each has its own relay contact, which can be, for example, in three positions. This position defines the current cam for its height. Gradually gears rotate, executing a given program. A programmer is called a timer.
In washing machines, the detail is similar. Zanussi, Whirlpool( Atlantic), Atlas - does not matter. What breaks at the programmer? If water gets there, the metal gears become rusty. Although the programmer is considered non-separable, it can be carefully cleaned if absolutely necessary.
Electronic unit washing machine
The electronic unit contains the necessary information about the modes, the processor is located here. The structure is highly dependent on the model. Therefore, we will not say about the repair of the electronic module of a washing machine. The only thing to note is that now most of the devices have tools for flashing software. They are also called programmers. .. Repair of modules sometimes comes down to updating the software.