How would Leonardo da Vinci react to the proposal to earn extra money, creating wall heaters, electrical panels. The genius is a great inventor, and until now a helicopter and a parachute are attributed to the creative potential of a genius. The artist himself explained this by seeing unusual objects in a dream, like Nostradamus.
Nostradamus, Leonardo da Vinci and the inventive genius of
Electric heater panels on the wall would not have appeared without creative people. Leonardo da Vinci did not have a reputation for being a beggar, so he asked the servant to wake the scientist at the appointed hour. This is what the medieval genius came up with about the holiday regime. A person has enough sleep for 15 minutes every 4 hours. Surprised, but Da Vinci was right. There will be no side effects and fatigue, unless, of course, the test subject is not engaged in heavy physical labor. Then the rest time will have to increase.
Leonardo asked that they wake up, go to bed at the appointed hour 15 minutes before getting up. He wrote that the technique is amazing, there was no fatigue. But as a result of the experiments, the light ceased to see dreams, from which it drew inspiration for inventions and creativity. Do you doubt? Nostradamus saw the Second World War in dreams and tried to describe what is happening before his eyes. Much could not designate scientific terms, giving his own interpretation.
Geniuses think differently. Today, people are presented with radiant thinking, as something new, hitherto unknown, capable of elevating a person to the top of his creative abilities. However, the teachings are records of Leonardo da Vinci as an example for the chapter on the conduct of educational notes. New - well forgotten old. Most inventions come to the world through great people. This is how sports lifestyle and fitness came into vogue, although a rare person remembers that in the 30s, when Joe Vader, the father of bodybuilding in a modern form, developed the technique, overhead shoulders on jackets and cigars were present in fashion. Even fewer people know that the first training program was created by Yevgeny Sandov. Being kind of painful, he managed to achieve an incredible for those times( late 19th century) strength and muscular volumes, setting a number of world records.
We apologize for such a long introduction. Its meaning is simple. Wall panel heater is not a new invention. Such things have long been used to heat ice in drain systems, gutters, on roofs. The theater in St. Petersburg has long acquired a complex antiled. Coatings Heat-insulated floors are built according to a similar technology, let's try to find out the principle of the invention.
Prehistory of modern heaters
A century and a half( 165 years ago), when the panel electric heaters did not exist, two scientific husbands independently discovered that a certain amount of heat is generated when current flows through the conductor. At that time, the effect was ranked among a number of parasitic ones, there was no discovery of applications in the near future. The first electric heaters, together with refrigerators, began to appear at the beginning of the last century. Vigorous process of invention was in America. A special journal regularly published non-standard methods of using household appliances.
So, it was found that heat is released from the conductor, the quantitative measure depends on:
- Current strength.
- Conductor Resistance.
- Time course of the process.
It became clear: the longer a current of considerable magnitude is passed through a conductor, the more heat will be released. The decisive role was given to the material. The resistance of metals and other conductors strongly depends on nature, not everyone is suitable for creating an electric heater. Similar reasoning came to an alloy of nickel and chromium with additives:
This is how a structural element was invented, on the basis of which the vast majority of electric heaters function. The alloy is named after the first syllables of the metals that formed the base. Nichrome - the heart of an electric heater. The American Marsh discovered the remarkable qualities of the material in 1905, for more than a hundred years the manufacturers did not brag at the invention. The resistance of nichrome is huge, and the cost of manufacturing is low. Suitable for mass production of electrical panel heaters.
On the basis of nichrome began to sell devices of various types. Traditionally, electric heaters were equipped with a reflector, the helix glowed red hot, enrolling the subject in infrared. This class includes a film panel heater. However, there is no nichrome inside, let us begin to consider the evolution of methods for obtaining useful heat in order to provide the reader with comprehensive information.
Cable heating and electric heaters of the
panel. So, in 1905, Nichrome was opened. Immediately began to make home heaters, but the inventors continued to operate a fountain of ideas. We came up with anti-ice systems. As planned, the branch of the nichrome cable should deal with the porch, roof, gutters, gutters, pipes with cold water.
The survey process turned out to be long, the panel electric heaters did not appear immediately. The self-regulating cable, which they are trying to present as a wonder, appeared in the 50s of the XX century. In the past, using the product wisely proved difficult because of the low technological level of civilization. The current version of the wonder, suitable for electric heaters panels, was released in 1971.
In fact, there are two families of heating cables:
The former are often based on nichrome. Cheap and unpretentious, if a gap occurs, the system fails. The heater on the resistive cable is a closed wire, powered by a voltage of 220 V or with a special adapter. The principle of action: the flowing current causes the appearance of heat, which melts the ice in the gutters, dries the tracks and heats the floor. Surface Warm floor is also built on the basis of heating cables( not any modifications).
In contrast to resistive cables representing a piece of wire, self-adjusting options are intelligent. Each is a sandwich of a number of layers:
- Two parallel conductor of copper or aluminum( less steel).
- A dielectric layer with graphite specks( matrix) between the conductors.
- Metal Screen.
Screen may be missing. The shell is high-density polyethylene or a variety of rubber. Interesting inside. Dielectric is called a matrix because it is riddled with grains of graphite. In the normal( cold) state, carbon forms a conductive layer with high resistance, where heat is generated. The lengths of the wires are not in contact( they are at a distance of several mm from each other), the current flows only through the graphite matrix.
The cable heats up, the dielectric inside expands. The matrix in places suffers ruptures, resistance increases. As a result, the current gradually ceases to flow, heat ceases to emit. A curious feature of the self-regulating cable is the feature of heating up to a maximum in low temperatures.
The principle of operation of electric heaters panels
Now you know the principle of operation of electrical panels. Inside is a self-regulating cable that is tuned to a temperature of 65 ºС.There are modifications with a graphite layer.
It remains to add that the cable is characterized by the power allocated per meter length( linear output), self-regulating during production, in addition, tuned to fixed temperatures by changing the concentration of graphite chips, variations of the dielectric material.
So, under the decorative coating with a picture of a famous artist, painted on a film of durable polymer, lurked self-regulating cable. It is equipped with a thermal fuse just in case, inside it is rolled up in a zigzag. The uniformity of heating is guaranteed by the graphite matrix described above. Cold places get more heat. When the temperature reaches 65 ºС, the product ceases to consume current and turns off.
It turns out that the panel heater is a piece of self-regulating cable with a plug on the first end and a special plug on the second. There is no electronics( except for the thermal fuse), only 220 V from the socket. In fact, you need to take care of safety and decorative qualities. But the attentive reader has already guessed that the advantages of wall panel heaters can be used by anyone who can solder.
The drawbacks of wall panel heaters are unknown. No cons, nice and warm, in addition weighs only 500 grams. Do not use the device in a hotel instead of a mattress. It is life threatening. Manufacturers do not provide information about the electrical safety of the device. Designed for the wall, we venture to suggest that full tightness is not respected. It is enough to sweat while lying on the panel in order to obtain an invigorating discharge of current with a low probability.