Among the favorite vegetables used for summer salads and winter preparations, eggplant is far from the last. Nutritional value and unique perception of spices is highly valued not only by professional chefs, but also by ordinary housewives. Therefore, in their gardens, many grow blue fruit, but growing eggplant is troublesome and not every gardener can boast of a large crop. Like other plants, eggplant and its seedlings are susceptible to various diseases. The article discusses the main ones, as well as provides methods for combating, including folk, against diseases.
. ContentsThe whitefly
The main diseases of eggplant and seedlings
Eggplant is an intricate crop, and even with proper care, plants can be affected by various diseases. Knowing what to do and how to deal with misfortunes, plus an instantaneous response and properly selected treatment tools will help to localize the problem and prevent the spread of pathogens throughout the site.
How to treat against late blight
Haraaakterizirutsya education on the leaves of rusty spots with yellowish or pale green framing. Breeding fungus infects the stem. In rainy weather a whitish plaque can be found on the bottom of the leaf, which is a sign of sporulation. With the development of late blight infection of the fruit occurs, which become covered with brown spots and become deformed.
Existing drugs for late blight are divided into 2 types: for the prevention of disease and treatment. The most popular means of biological origin: Baktofit, Fitosporin-M.If the treatment was ineffective, apply chemical solutions: Thanos, Acrobat, Ridomil Gold.
How to deal with tobacco mosaic
Viral disease, is recognized by characteristic spots on the leaves. Light green blotches are located near the veins, with time they increase and unite. At the late stage, the middle of the hearth darken and die. Underdeveloped fruits with low taste qualities are formed on the affected bushes.
As a preventive measure, the bed is sprayed once every 10 days with a milky solution( 1 l of milk and 20 grams of grated soap).Not less effective are: Fitosporin and Uniflor-micro.
Fighting white rot
Fungal disease, mainly due to excess moisture in the air and soil. The reason may also be covered in cold weather when planting seedlings. The fungus infects the root system of eggplant, resulting in a whitish plaque on the stem. Violation of nutrient intake and developing microorganisms lead to the death of a shoot.
As a preventive measure, it is recommended to powder a bed of wood ash or chopped chalk once in 10 days. When detecting lesions, remove them and dispose of them.
What to do with gray rot
Recognized by the characteristic dark watery stains that cover leaves, stalk and even fruit. The ideal environment for the development of a fungal infection is heat( + 20 ° C) and high humidity( air and soil).Spores persist in the ground for 2 years, infecting subsequent harvests, so it is important to carefully harvest plant waste from the garden and disinfect.
The following drugs are used for treatment: Tanos, Fundazole, Bayleton, Acrobat. If you can not stop the reproduction of the fungus, then the bush must be removed from the site and disposed of by burning.
Black bacterial spotting
Identification of the disease can be on black spots on the sheets and yellow edging. Over time, the affected area increases, and convex areas with watery edges appear on the fruit. Sores covered with vegetables become unusable. The disease is rapidly developing at high humidity and a temperature of about + 30 ° C.The source of infection can be both seeds and soil, so before planting disinfection is carried out.
As a preventive measure and treatment, the beds are sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, Hom, Oxyh, Acrobat.
The signs of the disease are: formation of constriction on the root collar and wilting of the plant. In identifying the disease, it is necessary to treat the bush with Trichodermine. If the treatment does not give a result, the escape is removed from the bed and burned. The soil must then be decontaminated in order to localize the affected area.
Black Leg is a fungal infection that is transmitted through infected seeds and soil.
Major pests of eggplant
Pest insects can also significantly reduce yields. The danger is that the larvae and the parasites themselves easily survive the winter in plant debris and soil. Experienced gardeners, for good reason, advise disinfecting all seed and soil before planting. By spending a minimum amount of time and money on preparation, it is possible to avoid infection of young shoots and ripening fruits.
How to get rid of aphids
The danger of pests lies in their ability to affect not only young shoots, but also adult fruiting bushes. The population of parasites is increasing at an incredible rate, so you should not postpone processing. The problem can be recognized by a faded bush species, twisted leaves, fallen ovaries.
- is the choice for planting an illuminated and well ventilated area;
- soil moisture adjustment;
- disinfecting seeds and soil before planting;
- weed control;
- removal of affected leaves.
With the rapid detection of aphids in the greenhouse, you can spray planting infusion of onion peel( tobacco dust, potato tops).If the affected area is significant enough, special preparations are indispensable( Akarin, Fitoverm).
The parasite's habitat is the lower part of the leaf. For the extraction of cellular juice, spider mite damages the leaves, tightening them with a net. Insect differs by gluttony, so it is not worth delaying with processing. In just a few days he is able to destroy a bush.
- thorough cleaning of beds from debris and plant residues in the fall;
- soil digging before frost;
- timely weed control.
In case of mass destruction, it is necessary to treat the beds using special preparations: Neoron, Actellic, Confidor, etc. The procedure is repeated several times with an interval of 10 days.
Danger for eggplant are the larvae of the whitefly. They are laid by the insect on the back of the leaf. The leaves first look wilted, then dry and fall. The larvae drink the juice intensively, depriving the plant of strength.
- disinfect the site and seeds;
- timely weed control.
This can be done with the help of: Citzkor, Actellic, Fufanon.
Knowledge helps to quickly recognize the symptoms of a particular problem, which will make it possible to gain time to solve it. Then hopes for a bountiful harvest will not be ghostly.