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Most residents of the metropolis are ready to exchange multi-room apartments in a typical reinforced concrete box for a small but cozy private house. Among the mass of options the constant popularity among our compatriots is used by wooden houses. And this is not surprising, because only the tree has a whole set of amazing properties: high strength in combination with low thermal conductivity and sound permeability. Natural wood is ecological, safe for health, has a pleasant aroma, texture and pattern. The tree promotes natural air exchange, which is the most important factor in creating a favorable microclimate in the room.
Disadvantages of wooden houses
Despite a lot of advantages, the tree has a huge number of significant shortcomings, which can not be ignored.
The main drawback of wooden structures is fire hazard. Difficulties arise with the arrangement of the heating system, especially if the heat generator is a solid fuel boiler, a fireplace or an oven using an open flame. In addition to ignition, the tree is susceptible to damage by insects, fungal infections and mold colonies. Output one: regular treatment of the material with various insecticidal and antibacterial impregnations.
Modern technologies and building materials allow to carry out all stages of construction wooden houses all year round, which makes it possible to build "turnkey housing" to the maximum short time.
Types and features of the construction of a wooden house
The first thing to do before starting the construction of a wooden house is to determine the purpose and options for using the building. This will be the starting point in the choice of construction technology and the final cost of the project.
It should be understood that the designs of wooden houses can be typical or individual. Individual construction makes it possible to take into account a multitude of factors and characteristics typical for site: landscape, climatic conditions, proximity of infrastructure, utilities and etc.
Next, consider a few common in the Russian Federation types of wooden houses.
Log cabin from logs
Buildings from hand-chopped hewn logs combine an authentic design, strength and durability, have excellent thermal insulation properties. The main difficulties in the construction of this design are:
- high requirements for the quality of wood (moisture, mandatory calibration);
- labor intensity of the construction process;
- the need to attract professionals.
The drawbacks of this technology include the mandatory work on sealing joints. Nevertheless, sealant for seams in a wooden house will allow to perform these works without attracting specialists, quickly enough and with minimal expenses.
Proceeding from the above, it can be concluded that the manually chopped wooden houses of the road are in execution. But if the budget allows, then such a house will fully justify the invested money with its exclusive design, high operational qualities.
Houses made of round logs
The material used to build such structures is smooth logs of the same size, which are manufactured exclusively in the factory. Wooden houses made of logs cylindered collect as a designer: all the parts from the factory come in numbered and fitted to each other. The house made of round logs has an attractive and very neat appearance. Due to careful preparation of the material, the supporting structure will not have any gaps and gaps, which significantly reduces the cost of heating the building.
Disadvantage can be considered the relatively low durability of the material, because of the way wood is processed. Solving the problem of durability - the use of antiseptics and various impregnations, reducing the negative external effects on wood.
Interior decoration of a wooden house from round logs is not provided, which further reduces the estimated cost of the project.
Lafet - a semi-oval log, hewn only from two sides. Conventionally, such a material can be called a semibuse or a board with rounded faces. Assemblage of wreaths is made in two ways:
- standard cutting;
- cutting "Norwegian Castle".
Most of those who choose a wooden house from the carriage, prefer the second option of securing the logs, despite the complexity and high cost of doing the work. Norwegian Castle:
- increases the mechanical reliability of the assembly;
- contributes to the optimal distribution of the load between the crowns;
- significantly reduces the number of "cold bridges".
As with the construction of houses from round logs, the construction of the carriage is assembled at the factory.
After assembly and fitting, each part is numbered for ease of subsequent erection. Such advantages make the frame from the carriage the most attractive, albeit expensive, option for building a wooden house.
Houses made of sawn timber
Wooden houses of this type of timber occupy a leading position in the construction technology market due to the high rate of construction with a relatively low estimated cost of work. Straight edges of the beam, a fairly simple cut and simple corner joints of the material allow significantly reduce the time of assembly of the bearing structure, and do not require carpenters of great experience and high qualifications.
The main drawback of houses from a raw timber is a significant shrinkage. In the process of exploitation, a violation of the geometry of the building is possible, gaps appear between the crowns. Proper processing and interior finishing of a wooden house from a sawn timber is mandatory, since time on the surface of the material may form cracks that do not adorn the appearance premises. In addition, insects, pathogens of fungal infection can settle in cracks.
The absence of a "thermal lock" significantly reduces the energy efficiency of the building and often requires the owner to invest in insulation and exterior finishing of the house from the sawn timber.
Houses of profiled beams
In this material, the main drawbacks of the conventional sawn analogue were leveled. On the opposite sides of the profiled beam there is a lock connection of the spike-groove, which prevents the elements from moving in the rows and provides sufficiently high values of the thermal insulation.
Thanks to this design, high quality requirements, moisture and geometry of the material, houses from The profiled bar has a minimum shrinkage percentage, practically does not require additional warming. The material is more durable. Due to the tight fit of the blanks, there are no crevices in the crowns of the building, in which moisture can accumulate.
Houses made of laminated veneer lumber
Glued bar is a carefully dried and glued with the help of the press boards of wood with a high content of resinous substances. On the workpiece a locking joint is created, which is used in a profiled beam. Thus, we obtain a material with the following advantages:
- ideal geometry;
- due to the different direction of the fibers, the beam can not be deformed;
- high bending strength.
According to reviews, houses made of laminated veneer lumber have very little shrinkage.
The walls do not require additional finishing works, as the material does not dry up and does not crack during operation.
Wooden frame houses are maximally adapted for self-erection. All elements of such a structure are manufactured in production, so that only strict adherence to the sequence of actions will be required for the construction of a dwelling. Moreover, frame houses do not require the arrangement of heavy foundations, due to which the construction takes place in the shortest possible time and at minimal cost.
Frame house virtually does not shrink, which allows the owner to use it for the intended purpose almost immediately after finishing the finishing works.
This technology has its drawbacks:
- Relatively low heat and noise insulation characteristics. These disadvantages are leveled by external insulation of the enclosing structures, floor and roof.
- Less service life compared to other types of wooden structures. The service life of such houses is usually 25-30 years and can be increased by additional measures for the protection of wood.
Nevertheless, frame houses are quite warm and are relatively inexpensive for the owner, which made them the most popular among domestic developers.
What you need to know when building a wooden house
The construction of any house consists of several stages:
- Creating a Project, thanks to which you can correctly select the necessary materials, distribute the budget, obtain permits.
- Laying the foundation. Out of the total budget, the foundation "pulls on itself" up to 30% of the funds allocated for construction. For wooden buildings, the ribbon type of the foundation is most often used.
- Raising the carrier boxfrom a bar (150x200 mm) or round logs with a diameter of 250 mm.
- Roof construction. Typical construction consists of rafters, heaters, steam - and waterproofing, roofing material.
- Location of window and door constructions, as well as the laying of utilities are determined at the stage of development of project documentation.
- For floors in housesWood, as a rule, uses the same material that goes to the construction of the supporting structure. Wooden floors have low fire resistance. That is why it is extremely important to pay attention to the processing of all elements with flame retardants. Overlapping must meet the requirements for strength, have the necessary rigidity without the deflections of beam elements. In some cases, experts recommend the use of metal beams as beams.
- Creating a ceiling. The wooden ceiling consists of the following components: load-bearing beams, lumber, waterproofing, insulation layer, finishing coating of durable and practical materials. In frame houses, ceilings are most often covered with lining, plasterboard, OSB or laminated moisture-proof plywood. As a waterproofing, roll, fill or coating materials are used. In the ceiling, a ventilation slit must be provided to prevent condensation.
- Floor arrangement. The floors in the wooden house, as a rule, are a pie consisting of 700 mm logs laid in steps of 150x150 mm, rough floor, waterproofing, heat insulator, vapor barrier membrane, finishing floor and finishing decorative coating. The reduction of heat loss through the floor is ensured due to the competent organization of thermal insulation, in which quality one of the types of stone wool, glass fiber of the required thickness can be used.
- Finishing work. In houses built from round logs or profiled beams, finishing work is rarely carried out. In frame construction, the most popular finishing material is siding and wood paneling. Than to warm a wooden house from the outside? To increase the thermal insulation performance of frame construction, mineral wool heat insulators and polystyrene plates, 150 mm thick, are used.
- After warming, the walls are covered with any facing material: siding, wooden lining, etc. On the frame structures, the ventilated facade system showed itself very well.
The wiring in a wooden house must be done very competently. Today, there are a lot of compounds that make it possible to protect the walls from fire. In fact, any impregnations only increase the time it takes to burn wood. That's why for the creation and commissioning of utility networks, professionals should be exclusively recruited.