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Stairs to the second floor in a private house is an inevitable link between different levels of living space. They are a necessary element for comfortable living, the design design of which, its equipment and the choice of source material should be considered at the planning stage of the project.
The design of the staircase must firstly correspond to the needs of the owner of a private house. At the same time, it must be not only beautiful, but also practical, reliable and safe.
Fortunately, we live in a century of abundance and the modern construction market offers a lot of options for all sorts of interior attributes. The segment of staircase constructions is not an exception. There are a variety of models of stairs to the 2nd floor. They can differ not only in the material from which the structure was made, but also in the most unexpected constructive solutions and decor elements.
Today, in private homes, these elements are usually made of wood, metal or concrete. Some owners of private houses use tempered glass, polymers or artificial stone in the design of stairs. But even among such a small assortment of building materials, it is quite difficult to choose exactly the model that fits exactly to your interior.
Each of these materials has its own advantages and disadvantages, so definitely to say which one is better or worse is quite difficult.
That in a private house it was warm and cozy, steps of stairs of the second floor of any type and design should be made of wood.
Selection of the starting material for the stairs in a private house
The choice of this or that material for the manufacture of stairs in the house is affected by a huge number of factors:
- the dimensions of the structure and the height of ceilings;
- general style of decoration of premises;
- practicality and safety;
- the possibility of creating different stairs of different designs;
- construction time;
- financial expenses;
- personal preferences of home owners.
The structures made of concrete are excellent for large and spacious rooms. And although, at first glance, it's hard to imagine that steps of heavy concrete can look quite weightless, as if soaring in the air, it really is. And the secret of such a ladder is enclosed in a complex reinforcing cage, reinforced at the top and bottom points of the structure.
With this material, no competitors can compete: neither wood, nor metal, nor composites. The possibility of creating any form of staircase and using all kinds of materials for the steps (wood, stone, glass, metal, tile and other finishing elements) in combination with increased reliability, make concrete structures very popular in last years.
To the indisputable advantages of concrete staircases are such criteria as:
- reliability of design;
- long service life;
- the ability to design any complex shapes and configurations, including screw types;
- simplicity of operation;
- no vibration during use.
To the disadvantages of stairs made of concrete, you can include high cost and additional labor. You can create an elegant staircase of concrete yourself, but for this you need certain knowledge and skills.
Sometimes even experienced mid-level masters are not able to make a reliable design with given aesthetic characteristics. Therefore, it is better to turn to specialized companies for its manufacture, where professional employees are engaged in the implementation of such work. Often, the material costs for the manufacture of such a design at times exceed the cost of more affordable analogs of wood and metal. In addition, concrete ladders do not always approach small living quarters.
Constructions from natural materials always cause the greatest interest among owners of private houses, because the wooden staircases in the house on the second floor always look good. They are usually made of oak, larch, beech, Siberian pine or ash.
Natural wood is a universal natural material that has unique characteristics. Natural raw materials occupy a leading position in the manufacture of various ladder models. Its advantages include such characteristics as:
- naturalness and ecological compatibility of wood;
- availability and relatively low cost;
- durability of the structure with timely proper care;
- ability to withstand heavy loads with a small own weight;
- an excellent combination with almost any internal arrangement of the house.
But even the tree has some drawbacks, which are worth paying attention to. First, wood is a fire hazardous material. Secondly, if the rules of operation are not observed, the tree begins to deteriorate.
Despite the general recognition, wooden staircases can often turn out to be somewhat cumbersome. Therefore, it is quite appropriate to draw attention to designs from other more modern materials.
Metal stairs to the second floor in a private house sometimes surprise with its lightness, beauty and variety of design decisions. The ladder itself can be forged or welded. They can be straight, curved or screwed - for an experienced designer this is the real source of a wide variety of ideas for building a room.
The obvious advantages of metal structures include:
- high strength and durability of structures;
- simplicity of operation;
- resistance to any kind of mechanical impact;
- relative cheapness and availability of metal products;
- variety of design and configurations;
- suitable for any interior.
Disadvantages of metal devices of communication between floors are the occurrence of excessive ringing and vibration during the movement from the first to the last stage.
Very often in private houses you can find combined models that successfully combine various variations in the structure of load-bearing structures, parts and facing materials. Usually the base of combined stairs is a metal frame and steps made of wood, artificial stone or glass. Such combinations give a feeling of lightness and reliability. Unusual design of such facilities emphasizes the individuality of the premises.
The main elements of the staircase
Different designs of stairs can have a lot of parts, some of which are mandatory components of the structure. Other elements included in the ladder ensemble can be of purely decorative character.
Among the mandatory elements of the ladder are the steps and the main supporting parts of the structure.
- Steps are parts consisting of horizontal (approach) and vertical (riser) parts. The staircase is the basis of the move, providing additional security when using the stairs. But there are also models, the design of which does not provide for its use.
- The supporting beams of the stairs are of two types. It can be a string - the base, supporting the steps from the ends or kosour - the base supporting the steps from below.
- The handrail is no less important element of the structure, which allows the ladder to be safe. At the same time, they can give the product a certain charm and completeness. Today, there are many models in the designs of which fences are not provided at all.
- Balusters are vertical supports for handrails. In addition to its main purpose, these elements often have a decorative purpose and serve as a decoration for the staircase.
Types of stairs of the second floor by types of their construction
Modern communication devices between neighboring floors are divided into three main types. It can be screw, march or construction on the bolts. Each of the staircase configurations is suitable for a certain layout of the room.
For example, helical or spiral models are usually used in small rooms where there is not enough space for a standard straight design. Screw stairs to the second floor can be made of any traditional material and have different forms of steps and handrails. The main supporting frame of the spiral structures is a vertical pipe to which the steps are attached to the narrow side. The other, usually wide side of the steps of the structure, is in contact with the wall surface or balusters. Screw models of stairs can be located both in the middle of the room, and directly at the wall.
The smaller the opening of the upper floor, the steeper the stairs. Therefore, for the safety of its use, the average width of the steps should be at least 20 to 25 centimeters.
Marching stairs in a private house
One of the most common constructions of the connection between the neighboring floors are the staircases. Their designs are practical and convenient to use, since here biomechanics of human movements during descent or ascent are taken into account. Marching models are ideal for spacious rooms.
One flight of stairs should contain at least three and not more than 15 steps, otherwise it will be very difficult to use such a device.
Marching stairs to the second floor in a private house can be straight or turning. Direct models are the most simple, durable and comfortable. However, sometimes for some reason it is more expedient to install a structure consisting of several marches adjacent to special sites. These stairs are called turning. The structures with such a construction take up considerably less space and at the same time have one step height. Sometimes instead of a ladder platform turners are made. Such models are called zabezhnye.
Turning ladders are divided into quarter-turn, half-turn and circular. Quarter-turn march staircases are most often installed between two adjoining adjoining walls and have a 90 ° turn in their construction. In semi-turn structures, staircases are rotated through 180 °. In the circular constructions of the march, alternately changing the direction, form a complete revolution of 360˚.
In the design of closed stairs to the second floor is expected the presence of risers. Typically, these models are installed along the walls, organizing under them closets, store rooms or utility rooms. Despite the fact that closed structures may seem somewhat cumbersome, they are considered safer and more reliable. In the open staircase there are no risers, which makes their design light.
Depending on the type of fastening steps, the flight ladder is divided into models with oblique and products with strings. Despite the visual differences, both types of these parts perform the same function - they are the bearing elements of the structure.
In kosorievyh constructions it is supposed to install steps on the so-called saddles. Here the supporting beam has the shape of a saw, on one side of the teeth of which the treads are laid, and on the other - the risers are mounted.
A taut ladder is called an inclined support beam, running along the entire length of the march. The steps in such structures are fixed in special grooves cut out inside the support.
Boltzevye stairs in the interiors of modern private houses have appeared relatively recently. Their distinguishing feature is the absence of any load-bearing structures: there is no provision for the use of a bowstring or kosoura. Fastening steps when installing a staircase in the house on the second floor, is made directly to a solid and reliable wall with the help of the bolts. For the safety and strength of the structure, it is not possible to mount the footing to the carcass or plasterboard partitions.
The construction of the ladder on the muscles can be stretched along the wall or made compact enough, occupying very little space. The voids, formed between the tears, give the structure some airiness and weightlessness. It seems that the steps easily float in the air. In fact, the ladders, when properly designed, are a very reliable and durable structure.
Models of stairs in the mountains are very difficult to calculate independently. For proper design and installation, it is advisable to contact specialized companies professionally engaged in such activities.
Usually, for the subsequent installation of staircases in hospitals, even at the stage of designing and erecting walls, it is necessary to lay mortgage bearing structures. But how to make a staircase to the second floor with cantilever steps, if it is impossible to fix the details rigidly in the wall, for example, in cases where the wall has already been finished for finishing? In such situations, along the surface of the wall, a string is usually mounted, which will act as a bearing support, and the metal bolts will be fastened directly into it.
The above photos of stairs to the second floor can not cover the whole range of design ideas, because each room is individually and requires its own solutions. Most of us understand: how much in the world of residential two-story premises, so many ideas can be. Nevertheless, here we tried to bring the main design developments used in the design of modern private houses.