With harsh winter frosts, during the heating “off season”, additional heating devices - convectors, oil, infrared heaters - help to maintain a comfortable temperature of the living space. Each type of heaters shows features relating to the principles of operation, energy consumption, the specifics of use. Convector heaters are much more economical than other heaters. To make the right choice, you should carefully consider the principle of operation of the convector heater.
Basic principles of operation of the
convector The work of a convector heater is based on a simple physical phenomenon known to the average person from a school physics course. Warm air shows the ability to rise up, cold - to go down. Due to the natural air circulation, the volume of the room is heated when using convector heaters.
To understand how a convector heater works, do not have any special knowledge - the method is so simple. At the bottom is a heating element, a heat exchanger. To increase the contact area of the heating element with air, it is supplied with flat metal fins, at the same time serving to direct the flow of warm air. The heating element is covered with a metal casing. By the type of energy consumed and design features, the convectors are divided into:
In the upper and lower parts of the convector casing, holes are cut through which cold air enters the inside of the body, hot air goes out. The casing is not in contact with the heating element, the convector casing does not heat up much like the casing of oil or water radiators.
In a domestic environment, electric convector heaters are more common. Water convectors are not very effective, because of their small size, they use instruments where there is no chance to install a traditional water radiator for space heating with panoramic windows. Gas convectors, despite the simplicity of installation and efficiency of the branch, did not receive distribution in the market.
The advantages and disadvantages of
convector heaters This refers to a common type of convector - electric heaters. If we analyze how a convector differs from an oil-filled heater, the main advantage is the rapid increase in room air temperature. In the oil radiator, the heat carrier, the device body, is first heated, after which the air begins to warm up. The heating element of the convector warms the air.
Since the convector casing does not reach high temperatures, devices are much safer to use. The risk of burns on hot casing is minimized. The peculiarity is important in cases when the house is inhabited by small children, pets. The reduced temperature of the hull gives the convector one advantage - when tipping over, it will not deteriorate, the floor coverings will not catch fire. However, for most models of household heaters, one stage of protection provides for the heating element to be turned off when tilting.
The basic principle of operation of a convector heater determines the main drawback - uneven heating of air in height. The temperature difference between the air at the floor, at the height of human growth is 4 - 9 degrees Celsius. The indicator is determined by the location of the part of the device, equipped with gaps of the heated air outlet. With the "classic" location on the upper end of the heater, the temperature difference will be higher. Gaps are located frontally - warm air is distributed evenly.
One problem with convector heaters is dust caught by circulating air. It is clear that the constant inhalation of dusty air is not too good for health. Falling down, the dust settles on the heating element, over time leads to the appearance of an unpleasant smell when heating the heating elements, reducing the efficiency of the device. When choosing a convector heater, it is worthwhile to give preference to modern models, the air outlet holes contain the frontal part.
"Heart" of the convector -
heating element. The design features of the heating element( heating element) form the convector heater indicators:
- power consumption level;
If the price of the device is low, a primitive heating element is installed inside - an open spiral. The mentioned models of convectors are produced by domestic, European manufacturers. In devices equipped with an open spiral, the class of protection of the IP enclosure is low, cannot be used for heating rooms with high humidity. The working temperature of the open coil is high( 500 degrees), burning dust will cause an unpleasant smell, oxygen burning, and a hotbed of fire when large combustible bodies fall on the surface.
Electric convector heaters with closed type heaters will be safer, more reliable in operation. Heaters are formed by a steel tube into which the filament is placed. The operating temperature of the closed heating element is low - not exceeding +100 degrees. In order to transfer heat more efficiently, the steel tube is supplied with an aluminum radiator. Due to the high thermal conductivity of aluminum, the radiator heats the circulating air quickly.
In steel heating elements with an aluminum radiator, certain drawbacks are noticed. Since the coefficients of thermal expansion of materials are different, the density of contact between the radiator and the surface of the steel tube is broken over time. It turns into a decrease in the efficiency of the device. The worst option is possible - local overheating of the heater. Will lead to burnout of the heating element, the occurrence of a fire hazard situation.
The most modern( expensive) models of electric convectors are equipped with a monoblock heater. The heating element, the radiator is a solid-cast construction. TENY are reliable in operation - the service life of the product reaches 20 years. The heating thread of solid cast heating elements is placed in a special charge, which consists of the smallest quartz crystals and some other substances. For the manufacture of the hull used aluminum alloys. For example, convector heaters( France) of the Noirot brand are equipped with cast silumin heating elements.
Combined models, for example, a convective infrared heater, will provide the most efficient heating with minimal power consumption. In addition to TENA installed infrared panel. Distinguish the unit from the typical convector in appearance - the front panel of the convective infrared heater is equipped with perforations, the flow of IR radiation freely illuminates the room.
Control, safety steps
Simple household convectors are equipped with a power management subsystem. Switching can be two-stage( full, half power), three-stage( 50, 75, 100% power).Convector heater models are mostly equipped with a thermoregulation stage. Possibilities and accuracy of adjustment of cheap, expensive heaters differ radically.
The temperature is controlled using electromechanical or electronic thermostats. In electromechanical control systems, the accuracy of temperature control is not too high - within 1-3 degrees. The device is turned off when the desired temperature is reached by means of a bimetallic plate. The electronic circuit formed by sensors connected to the control unit, will allow you to adjust the temperature, maintaining the accuracy of several tenths of a degree.
Of course, the cost of an electronic control unit, as compared with an electromechanical one, will be several times higher. Due to the high accuracy of temperature control, power consumption of the device with electronic control is reduced by 4-5%.The next adjustment scheme will make it possible to optimize energy consumption - a timer. Hours give the person to maintain the necessary temperature conditions depending on the time of day.
Selecting the best convector heater, pay attention to the performance indicators and the degree of protection. In the passport of the convector heater indicates the class of protection of the heating element from external influences, high humidity. By international standards, the protection class is marked with IP letters and numbers. If in the passport of the convector IF24 and above is specified, the device is used in wet rooms.
Convectors are supplied with safety steps that reduce the level of fire hazard. Practically, products are equipped with overheating protection - if the temperature of the heating element exceeds the permissible norm, the convector is automatically turned off. Mobile heaters have anti-rollover protection. A special sensor controls the vertical position of the device. If you deviate from the vertical position of the heating element is turned off.
Comparing the variety of types of heaters, it is unlikely to determine unequivocally whether it is better to have a heater or a convector. Different types of heaters have different principles of operation, energy consumption, efficiency. When choosing a heater, we proceed from specific tasks and features of the room. Infrared heaters are suitable for temporary heating of a country house, and mobile electric convectors work favorably “in tandem” with the central heating branch as additional heating devices.