The owners of cottages and country houses face the challenge of cleaning and recycling of waste. Ways to solve the problem, there are many, but the best can be considered the installation of a septic tank, which is able to remove up to 80% of contaminants from wastewater.
Among these units are proven local structures "Tver" providing multi-stage waste treatment.
But, you see, before you decide to buy, you must learn how to work the machine as installing a septic tank Tver, and what are the characteristics of its operation.
All these factors are detailed in the article. The information can help determine the appropriate model of a septic tank, independently carry out installation and commissioning of the unit.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation of a septic tank
- Lineup purification equipment
- Where to place the installation: regulations
- How to determine the water absorption of the soil
Methods exhaust effluents
- Industrial water diversion gravity
- Reset purified liquid using pump
- Technical Lead fluid into the filter well
- Excretion of purified water in the filtration field
- Preparation for the installation of a septic tank
- purification equipment installation technology
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation of a septic tank
Cleaning equipment under the brand name "Tver" It represents a septic tank type aeration with sufficient performance.
Used in any soil with different groundwater levels.
Septic Tver manufactures multi-stage purification of sewage, so recycled fluid may be discharged into the ground or sewer trench may be used for watering plants
All modifications of the device include six basic elements.
The principle of operation of the local cleaning station based on natural phenomena: mechanical separation process wastewater biological treatment with bacteria, oxidation with oxygen (+)
Let us consider each element separately:
- primary settler. It receives waste water with the inclusion of solids. Anaerobic bacteria fermented sewage entered mass. Heavy large inclusions are deposited on the bottom of the tank. The lighter particles rise to the top of the settling tank and with the liquid poured into the second compartment of the unit.
- bioreactor. There are conversion processes are difficult oxidizable fraction easily oxidizable. Under the influence of gravitational forces move heavy inclusion in the bioreactor from the top down, gradually undergoing changes.
- Aeration tank. In this zone, coming from the lower compartment of the bioreactor readily oxidizable fraction is mixed with biologically active sludge, in which there are aerobic bacteria. The procedure is performed by blowing air through the sludge entire aeration tank. To improve the efficiency of work in the capacity of the aerator is added to concrete block.
- Secondary clarifier. Collects the expanded clay balls and slimy foam. Here expanded clay is separated which is collected in the lower tap and directed back into the aeration tank. The clarified liquid is accumulated in the upper part of the vessel, removed from the next area.
- Aeration-bioreactor. This partially purified effluent fed with a minimum quantity of solid inclusions. Here, they are decomposed into gas, and water. This occurs under the influence of the aerator, through which air is blown. Solid particles tend to sink to the bottom of the container, air bubbles do not allow them to do so. They pick up elements of the solid fraction, pick them up, again from which the particles fall down. The process is repeated until complete decomposition of the organic matter.
- Tertiary clarifier. In this compartment comes almost completely purified liquid. It contains only particles of limestone, which was mixed in the aeration tank. In settler they fall down and clean water flows into the drain pipe and out of the septic tank.
To accelerate the degradation process in the compartment bottom is laid crushed limestone so that the aerator is located under a layer of material. Sedimentary rock is well adsorb the solids fraction of sewage and delays phosphates contained in detergents.
The compartments septic Tver backfilled further expanded clay balls, limestone and type filters installed Ershov
Lineup purification equipment
The manufacturer produces eight different models in terms of the septic tank. They can process from 0.75 to 10 m3 /сутки. For example, the most productive modification Tver 10 designed for the processing of sewage coming from the small cafes or hotels.
Smallest performance in Tver 0.75. This septic tank is designed to serve residential homes, in which no more than 3 people.
In addition to the performance of different equipment and design features. It produces about four or five versions of each model differing dimensions of housing, number of compressors, etc.
And varies the location of the inlet pipe which can be located at a depth of 0.6 m or 0.3 m. Depending on this change the size and shape of the manhole.
Lineup septic Tver brand focused on the difference in the amount of recyclable waste. modifications mounting process generally similar, but according to the device having some modifications nuances
Design features of septic tanks are designated by letters, which are present in the model name. For example, modifications to the letter P made of polypropylene. The entrance pipe in these models is 0.34 m above ground level.
Variations compartment under the drain pump marked PN. Septic tanks with the department under the fecal pump designated NPAnd marking NNP It indicates the presence of two pump compartments.
Where to place the installation: regulations
Septic tanks are among the potentially harmful environmental objects. Their installation requires permission from the SEC. To get it, you need to make equipment layout design, in which all of the current requirements and standards should be taken into account.
If all the relevant regulations, the resolution will be obtained. The project takes into account not only the installation location, but also its volume.
The latter figure should not be less than three days the maximum amount of effluent. The place where the septic tank is installed, you need to remove as much as possible from the well or from the well, if they are on the site.
Despite the fact that for cleaning equipment sealingly theoretically accidents may occur as a result of which the waste water can get into the aquifer.
Distance from the basement of an apartment house to the septic tank according to the standards should be at least 5 m, but for VOC with the forced evacuation of treated wastewater is an exception
To avoid such problems standards regulate the distance from the cleaning apparatus to the well or wells for each soil type. The minimum is 20 m.
On average, the presence at the site of loamy, sandy loam or sandy soil, this distance is from 50 to 80 m. There are certain rules in force during laying of water pipes. They must be placed at least 10 meters away from the septic tank.
So there is no danger of water pollution in case of depressurization of the pipeline. Another detail: selecting a portion for installation of a septic tank, it must be remembered that the relative water level of the source of its arrangement should be lower.
Moreover, it should take into account the rules governing the distance between the treatment plant and a place where people live. From the foundation of the house to the septic tank should be at least 5 m.
However, too great a distance between the objects is extremely undesirable, as long sewer blockages longer exposed. It is important to choose the optimal length of the structure. In the case of modification of a septic tank usage Tver forced evacuation process water you can place it closer to home.
Vent stack in such cases is set at the entrance to the outer sewerage branch and attached to the wall of the house. The inlet sewer pipe may be about 1 m.
Reset type and length exiting the tube is dependent on the geological and hydrogeological environment at a specific site. In any case, the outer sewer network necessarily equipped inspection chambers.
Septic tank is potentially dangerous for the environment, so it needs to be placed, taking into account the requirements of the regulations in force (+)
It must be remembered that the choice of septic tank placement must be taken into account not only the interests of the owner of the land, but also its neighbors. Therefore, the distance from the installation to the fence can not be less than 2 m.
If there is a road nearby with a fairly heavy traffic, septic tank can not be installed closer to her, than 5 m. The distance from the foundation should not farm buildings of any purpose to the septic tank to be less than 1 m.
Professionals are advised to plan for the installation of pollution control equipment at the site with the soft ground, which will greatly facilitate the earthworks. In addition, care must be taken that there was free access to a device for carrying out its regular maintenance.
All of the above is required to consider when choosing a location for a septic tank.
Step 1: Before installing developed septic pit depth of 2 m from the surface. The bottom layer of the sand pit slept about 10 cm, and tamped
Step 2: The position set in the septic tank is controlled construction pit level. If necessary, align capacity
Step 3: To a vessel immersed in a pit fed pipe, transporting effluent from home, and a pipe, the transmitting clarified water to objects dirt afterpurification
Step 4: To a sewage station connects conduit, which should provide a bias drift effluents from house to the septic tank, and from there to the unloading
Step 5: Produced installation functional devices in the system, airlifts, perforated pipes, compressors, pumps
Step 6: Produced rubble loading required for normal operation of the station, and attachment of artificial seaweed
Step 7: Fully-equipped and filled with the necessary loading station once again check for levelness
Step 8: If the sewer system prepared to work longer needs the alignment layers is filled with sandy soil pit with a neat tamper backfill
Installing septic Tver in pre-dug pit
Control of the position and alignment of the station tank
Summing to a pipeline trenches station
Laying and connection of the pipeline
Installation of equipment and devices
Download and installation of gravel algae in the chamber
Check Tver station position with loading
Filling the pit with installed septic tanks
How to determine the water absorption of the soil
Before installing a new septic tank, it is advisable to find out how well the soil to absorb water area. From this it depends largely on the way to exhaust effluent.
Experts recommend to test for water absorption, which is easy enough to perform on their own. It also helps to determine ground water levelThat is very important in the regeneration of plants.
To do this test consistently perform the following activities. First we are drilling hole or dig a pit depth below the frost line.. The average is about 1.5 m when removing spoil from the excavation, tried to define the type: susp, sand, etc.
In the process of digging a hole in the water may appear. This means that the first dissected from the surface water-saturated layer.
To test for water absorption is optional but desirable. Especially if planned retraction purified liquid to the filtration field, since by the test easily calculate their volume
Usually, at such a depth is revealed perched that appears in periods of high rainfall and snowmelt. When she appeared at a depth greater than 1 m, the capacity of the need to install 15-20 cm above the recommended level.
The bottom of the pit will need to pour concrete screed and, without waiting for curing solution, set in mortar mounting tabs. They are necessary for anchoring the container - for fixing it to a concrete slab rope that prevents ascent during floods.
If the bottom seemed to clay soil, treated waste mass will need to take into the gutter. Loam and sandy loam does not pass water, so the reset will have to arrange a pretty long pipeline, and to stimulate the fluid movement on it will have to buy a pump.
If the bottom and sides of your exploration production stacked sands with thin layers of sandy loam and loam, it is necessary to determine the quality of the soil filtration. For this pit or hole to pour water, fixing the volume of fluid and the time spent on its absorption.
It is possible that liquid is absorbed completely, and still be set to any level. So, here it is not already gone, or will be too slow to soak. Operation of filling spend 5 or 6 times to get a more objective data on water absorption. Each time determine the volume filled fluid and its rate of absorption.
It may be that at the bottom of the pit will be water. If it does not go away in a few hours, we can assume that it will be permanent. So you dissected under a layer of sand lies a layer of clay, which does not miss a liquid component of the effluent.
Filtration properties must be considered when deciding on the discharge of treated wastewater way. For example, the filter well on clay rocks equip it makes no sense, because the liquid out of it will not go away.
It is impossible to construct if between conventional precoat filter bottom and below the roof overlying aquifer distance less than one meter.
For the device on clay based filter will not work field representing a system of pipes with holes through which seeps into the surrounding soil purified water. They are conveyed in sandy soils is well absorbed from the discarded liquid system.
By analogy with the device between the bottom of the well of wash perforated pipes and water saturation should be at least one meter.
If it is possible to deduce treated wastewater into a roadside ditch or a public sewer, a task they set aside much easier and cheaper
Methods exhaust effluents
Before installing a septic tank Tver important to decide on the method of removal of the purified water. It is assumed that the options can be a little. It is only necessary to choose the best method for your site.
This takes into account a number of factors: features of a particular model of a septic tank, the type of soil, the depth of the equipment installation, the presence / absence of drainage ditches and more.
Industrial water diversion gravity
Treatment facilities Tver provide a high degree of purification of waste water, therefore permitted Organization of fluid discharge to ground, a roadside ditch or its use for technical purposes, e.g., for irrigation.
Lead by gravity - is the budget option. In this case, it may be used from the very inexpensive device lineup septic respective performance without any additions in the form of a pump.
The most important condition for the successful operation of the system in case of movement by gravity - effluent discharge point should be located below the level of the septic tank outlet. This should be followed all recommended biases conduit towards the discharge portion.
Can be connected to a septic tank is not one, but several buildings. But in this case all of the above conditions must be met.
Reset purified liquid using pump
If the point of discharge of clarified wastewater is above the level of the septic tank outlet, an option may be used with the connection of the pump. Desirably, the acquired modification septic Tver had pumping compartment.
With the pump will be much easier to arrange the abduction purified weight over long distances for disposal outside of the village.
If you already bought a design intended to bring water by gravity, will have to purchase additional hardware.
special modifications to the pump compartment are used for forced removal. If the distance over which liquid is supplied, is large, it takes a larger volume pumping chamber (+)
This may be an additional storage module or caisson, from which will be pumped purified water. Expenses for their purchase, maintenance and installation significantly increase the cost of the entire project.
We must remember that the vertically oriented septic tanks do not have to modify the pump compartment. When using a pumping method divert water flow range of its capacity is limited only by the pump.
Technical Lead fluid into the filter well
It is expected that the water will be supplied by gravity or a pump in a special absorption well. This design is a separate drainage facilities in which there is also an additional cleaning fluid.
Construction of such a well is only possible in sandy soils, peat and plastic sandy loam with little clay content of the particles.
Discharging purified fluid absorption in the well on clay soils is impossible. Conventional floor constructions must be in sandy loam or sand, to liquid therefrom left. Additional cleaning drains or conducting layer detrital sand with gravel packing filler, precoat filter can be at least one meter (+)
The solid loam and sandy loam arrangement of such a system is pointless, as the water from it will not leave. The depth of the structures must be such that the detrital between the top of the filter inlet and at least a meter was required for normal accumulation and filtering wastewater.
Excretion of purified water in the filtration field
In this case, the cleaning liquid is held to be discharged drain filtration field. The construction will help evenly distribute the process water and produce further purification.
The dimensions of the field of filtration depend on the performance of a septic tank, and should be determined by experts. Calculation errors will inevitably lead to violations of the septic tank.
Step 1: To field filtering device to the bottom of trenches system buried at 0.6 - 0.8 m, trail geotextiles
Step 2: On top of the geotextile is laid perforated pipe - drain through hole which the supernatant water is discharged into the ground
Step 2: Trenches to set up in their drains system is filled with gravel, then sand. At each branch set drainage vent pipe for discharging methane
Step 4: The system laid in the trench drain pipes connected to the collecting well, the distributing waste water into the branches. If the filter box is located higher than the outlet of the septic tank, the collector give drain pump
Laying the geotextile at the bottom of the trenches
Installation and backfilling culverts
Ventilation pipe to the drainage branch
Collector well drainage system
Such a method of diversion of treated water is categorically not suitable for areas with typical seasonal floods. In such situations, the drains will be flooded in the spring / winter and the surrounding soil can not receive drains.
The liquid begins to stagnate, due to which discharge ceases as a result, a septic tank will not work. In addition, the stagnant water will become a source of odor and contamination of soil and water at the site.
Preparation for the installation of a septic tank
Having defined the method drainage effluents, it is necessary to arrange for a portion of their reception: a drainage ditch, a filtration well or field. Another important point: the entrance site preparation effluents into the septic tank.
If sewer conclusion of the building is deep enough, you may have to arrange pumping station. It will flow by gravity contaminated liquid.
Presented in Figure scheme sewage station is only used in the case of excessively recessed position O sewer of the building
Further fecal pumps it will be pumped to a septic tank for cleaning. Pumping equipment is not required, if the sewage output is not too recessed.
In most cases, do not need special equipment and for installation of a septic tank Tver. Its weight is low. The largest housing with complete "snap" in the form of expanded clay, limestone, etc. It weighs about 390 kg, which makes it possible to lower it into the pit by a few people.
Of course, more comfortable working with special equipment, but you can cope without it if necessary. Installation depth of the pit is small. For standard models it is only 1.65 m, which greatly facilitates the work.
That is why the brand Tver willingly choose to be installed in areas with high groundwater level. Dig a pit, you can force or special equipment on their own.
purification equipment installation technology
The work begins with the preparation of the pit under the septic tank. Its size should be 0.3-0.4 meters higher than the installation dimensions. The bottom of the pit is leveled and compacted. It fits cushion of compacted sand or gravel about 15 cm in height.
Now we do the liner to a septic tank. Laid pipe 100 mm in diameter with a slope of not less than 0.02 cm 2 or per meter. It is desirable to lay pipe without bends.
The correctness of the location inside the pit septic constantly controlled by the level
If they are still there, they need to perform well in the audit. The diameter of the structure must be 70 cm and the radius of the tray - 30 cm.
If the pipeline intersects heaving soils, they must be extracted at a depth of 40 cm from the bottom edge of the tube and replace the compacted sand. Places to connect to the sewer pipe nozzles are sealed.
Home sewers need to build one or two sewage risers. Without it, the correct operation of the septic tank is not possible.
Exiting through the roof sewage vent stack in any case should not be connected to a ventilation system intrahouse. It is connected to the sewer of the building wiring.
Inside the trench next to the feed pipe duct is laid from the compressor. It must be installed with a slight slope towards the septic tank. Here fit and the power cable. Similarly Equips receding highway.
Its slope depends on the method of purified water. For example, if it goes by gravity, the tube bias selected is not less than 0.01, i.e., 1 cm per linear meter.
If you select the forced evacuation of the fluid, the slope should be "reverse". That is, when the pump is stopped the water to be returned to the septic tank. Once work on the piping arrangement completed, one can begin to install the device body.
All connections are made as carefully and thoroughly. Leaks should not be, otherwise the building will lose its tightness
Capacity is lowered into the pit and gently mounted on the base. With the help of the level you need to check horizontal installation. Upon detection of violations should fix them, pour the sand under the edge of the housing.
Further held anchoring capacity. For this purpose, the housing has a special prigruzochnye projections at the ends. Then the device connects all painted communications, including electricity.
Now we need to fill the body to the level of pure water weirs. Simultaneously with filling the filling should be done outside the body clean sand without clay inclusions. Backfill is held on all sides to a height of about 30 cm.
It is important to control the accuracy of the mounting with a spirit level. The enclosure must be strictly horizontal. Then you can start warming septic tank.
The upper part of the device covered by any insulation. Most often used for this purpose rockwool. It is attached to the body, then the backfilling septic ground.
To test run in the septic tank is fed with waste water while switching the compressor into operation. An important condition for the operation - above zero outdoor temperatures.
At the final stage of installation in a septic tank and a necessary standard and optional equipment
The temperature of wastewater used for initial start-up must not be lower than 12 ° C, otherwise the device is not "work." Then you need to run the aeration system and, following the instructions, adjust the flow of the desired amount of air to the appropriate equipment compartments.
When everything has been done correctly, then after 3 or 4 weeks liquid at the outlet of the septic tank reaches a given degree of purification.
To verify this, you will need some time to take samples and to analyze them. Externally, the liquid should be clear, odorless, and coloring any visible inclusions. If the degree of purification is insufficient, septic operation handle.
Yourself to do it is unlikely, it is best to invite a specialist service company, manufacturer of cleaning equipment.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How does a septic tank and running Tver:
Self-assembling local sewage treatment plant Tver:
Features septic tank installation Tver in winter:
Septic Tank "Tver" - the practical solution to the problem of disposing of sewage. This is a fairly complex equipment with a high degree of purification can effectively operate only provided competent installation and commissioning. If there is any doubt in their own abilities, it is better to seek help from professionals.
Have experience installing or using a septic tank "Tver"? Please share the information with our readers, tell us about the features of the installation and maintenance of the unit. You can post comments in the form below.