Calculator of power required to maintain the temperature in the roomBeginners face difficulty: no room division. Example: a house, an entrance hall, a toilet, a storeroom, where heat is not needed, are located at the entrance. The program does not provide such a unit. It is impossible to take the temperature averaged over the area. For example, two walls face the street, and the other two - into the house. Apply the temperature outside and in the hallway with the necessary weights is impossible. In this case, gradients are considered - vectors showing the direction of energy transfer. Consider an example.
The apartment consists of:
- Large room, two walls facing the street, one - in the hallway, one in the pantry.
- The hallway is oblong, located along the length of the house, partially capturing the storage room.
- Storeroom with two walls facing the street, one - in the hallway, one - on the room.
The configuration is not important, try on the existing planning on their own. Determine the direction of movement of heat. We estimate the temperature of the premises. For a living room we take 20 ° С, in the hall - twice less, in the pantry - 5 ° С.Heat inside the house runs:
- From room to pantry through the wall.
- From the room to the canopy through the wall.
- From the hallway to the pantry through the wall.
Parameters are accepted, expecting corrections for heater power. The calculation is carried out in sequence:
- Enter into the calculator the area of the outer walls of the room, insert into the columns the type, number of windows, and their sizes. The temperature is determined by the winter, the lowest. We find the leakage of the contribution to the power of the heaters through the external walls.
- We turn to the wall leading to the hallway. Instead of the external temperature, we substitute 10 ° C.No windows. Enter the wall material. We get leakage, which is taken into account by the heater power.
- Similarly, perform the calculation for the wall adjacent to the pantry.
- The obtained three results form the total demand for space heaters. We choose devices, the efficiency of which will provide no less value.
- In the pantry, the calculation is similar. Two walls are calculated according to the standard scheme for the winter, we find the heat loss. Through the other two partitions the heat enters inside. We make two deductions from the losses through the external walls: heat coming from the room and heat coming from the hallway. The heater power is taken above the calculated.
The calculation of the power of the heaters for the canopy is clear: heat enters from the room.
There is no fundamental difference between the type of heater( oil, infrared).The exception is the calculation of the power of film models, taking into account the properties of insulation, which reduces the heat permeability of the walls, floor and floors.
When supplementing the existing heating, the calculations are carried out similarly, the power of the devices already installed is subtracted from the one found. At the same time, you can check whether the heating is calculated correctly.
The power consumption of the heater is taken slightly higher than the calculated power - devices with an efficiency of 100% do not exist.
A similar calculation is carried out for the off-season, taking into account the change in the direction of heat. For example, at an outdoor temperature of 6 ° C, heat enters the closet from all walls.
It is advisable to divide the heating devices into groups. Together they work in a fierce cold, separately - according to circumstances.
Choosing electrical appliances coordinate the power of the heaters with a quota allocated to the house. It is not always possible to supply all heaters with power. In this case, the part is replaced by gas.
Program for calculating the temperature gradient in the thickness of the walls
Not directly related to the calculation of power, but it helps to rationally arrange heaters, increase the durability of the supporting structures of the house. Heating batteries are located under the windows( not on the interior walls!) Not by accident.
We choose the most powerful heater, locate the largest heat leaks in the place - the windows are leading.
So, there are programs that calculate the temperature in the thickness of the wall. It is useful to know that ice should not get to the supporting structures under any circumstances. For this, they warm the facades. We will immediately calculate whether the measures taken are sufficient. A material with high rates, such as ceramic tiles, contacts with frost. The underlying layer of insulation protects the supporting structure from the vagaries of the weather.
The problem areas are the corners, which have heaters. Wall panel heaters are more practical: it is assumed that the temperature inside the wall is equal to the temperature of the heater, the freezing point is thrown out. Sometimes it is required to correct the calculations taking into account such heating devices:
- The temperature inside is equal to the temperature of the heater.
- The room is allocated half the power of the heater.
To select the depth of frost penetration, calculate the angle: take a section of the wall along the bisector under the chosen conditions and determine the freezing point. Construction materials are characterized by the parameter – frost resistance, one of the leading ones in the calculations. It shows how much the material will withstand the cycles of temperature zero crossing in both directions.
In case of difficulties with obtaining a result, they insulate the facade. Work is being done outside. An additional heat-saving measure is the placement of heaters where there are more leaks - corners and windows - taking into account possible losses. So provide effective heating.
If necessary, calculate the time to warm up the room to a predetermined level: the power of the losses is subtracted from the power of the heaters, the air volume is calculated. The specific heat capacity of the medium is taken, for example, on Wikipedia( 1 kJ / kg K).Watt is a joule divided by a second. Calculated by the formula time. If the warm-up period of the room is important, the rated power of the heaters is increased.