Replacement and wiring in the panel house
The replacement of the wiring starts the overhaul of the premises. Dismantling of the old and laying new wiring in the panel house is considered a difficult stage of work. However, if you know the nuances of this process, then you can safely rely on a positive result.
- 1Reasons for replacing wiring
2Differences in wire routing in the panel house
- 2.1The location of the wiring in the panel building
- 3Necessary tools and materials
4Types of wiring in panel houses
- 4.1Video "replacement of electrical wiring in a panel house"
- 4.2Stacking under plaster
- 4.3Installation on the floor and ceiling
5Step-by-step instruction for laying the wiring in the apartment
- 5.1Sequence of work
5.2Shtroblenie and excavation
- 5.2.1Video "How to Shield the Walls for Wire"
- 5.3Laying of wiring in the channel
- 5.4Wiring for devices and for lighting
- 6Video "Laying of concealed wiring"
Reasons for replacing wiring
To replace the electrical wires in the apartment of the panel house it is customary to proceed in some cases:
- when the old scheme runs the risk of not withstanding the voltage from the simultaneous operation of the refrigerator and other household appliances with a large expenditure of electricity;
- with a long service of aluminum wires, which have already worn out;
- in the situation where there is no ground wire;
- when the apartment is going to make a redevelopment, why it is required to switch to the supply of electricity by a three-wire or five-wire system;
- if the insulation material, which is prone to be covered with cracks, is damaged, burn and break at the ends after a long service life;
- in the situation of installing new outlets and switches, which can also be worn out and almost always change along with the wiring.
Differences in wire routing in the panel house
The panel houses can vary in configuration, but in most of these buildings the wall panel takes on the role of the bearing element. This should be taken into account when proceeding to lay the wires in a panel house. The main thing is to abandon the creation in the walls of vertical grooves, which can weaken the construction responsible for the stability of the building. The cable should be placed only in special channels created by factory workers.
The location of the wiring in the panel building
Usually in panel houses, electric wires are hidden in the materials of the ceiling or walls. It happens that the owners of the apartment find a wiring in the area of the wall and ceiling. This place is suitable for laying electrical wires, since it is not deprived of free space.Cables can easily be hidden between the wall and ceiling panels.
But in spite of the fact that the strobes are made in the plates, it is not always possible to quickly find a wire in the wall. There are such incidents that electrical circuits do not coincide even on a number of floors located in apartments with an identical layout.
In addition to the walls serving as a support, in multi-storey buildings there are also partitions, which are built of wooden or plasterboard slabs. In these designs, electrical wiring is foolish, since it is impossible to hide cable products in the thickness of the partition.
The place of installation of devices for connecting electric wires to a network in multi-apartment buildings is not chosen by chance.According to the rules, the socket must be fixed at a distance of 70-90 cm from the floor.And the switches are fixed on the wall, having retreated from the floor covering at least one and a half meters.
In older buildings, electrical wires are often laid in 2 lines: to an outlet and lighting devices. By the way, if an apartment is put not gas, but an electric stove, then mount a separate cable. But such a scheme is advised to refuse in favor of wire routing, which provides for separate current products that feed a group of appliances that consume electricity and ground the wire.
Necessary tools and materials
To build a new wiring, you need the following tools:
- perforator and bulgarian;
- a hammer;
- device for grooving in the wall;
- "Wire cutters" for wires;
- putty knife;
- Indicator screwdriver or multimeter;
- 60 W soldering iron;
When dismantling the old one and laying new wiring, there will be a need for certain materials:
- sockets and switches;
- dowel-clamps for 6 mm;
- electrical insulating tape;
- wire made of steel with a diameter of 1, 5 mm;
- mounting boxes with projections from the outside;
- an input shield, the size of which will accommodate 4 automatons, 4 RCDs, 4 terminal blocks and the ends of electrical wires.
In the apartment of a panel house, it is best to lay copper wires.Aluminum products are inferior to them in quality. The ends of the wires should be processed with a soldering iron and thus protected from oxidation reaction.
When installing a new wiring, you will need 3-4 sections of terminal blocks that connect the wires in the same way as the lead-in shield. During the laying of the wiring, terminal blocks of any material can be used, but the worst option is electrical installation products made of polyethylene. It is desirable that in the terminal blocks were made rectangular holes, which allow the clamping of wires not with a screw, but with a special plate.
To install the wires, you must purchase a new corrugation. Old pipes, which are certainly flattened, are recommended to be disposed of, since they hardly contain a double-insulated cable.Under the cables it is better to take new metal corrugated tubes, rather than polyvinylchloride, emitting poisons in the event of an accident.
Types of wiring in panel houses
The wiring in the apartment can be replaced partially or completely.If all the electrical wires are no longer suitable for the performance of their task, it is absolutely necessary to compile a new scheme for laying the electrical network inside the walls.To do this, you have to restore the location of the old wiring on paper.
Usually, most of the wires are hidden in the kitchen, where 3 sockets are mounted on an area of 6 m2. And in the bedroom and other rooms in this space, as a rule, have only one outlet. A separate power outlet requires a stove, and only a cable with a cross section of 4 to 6 mm is suitable for this household appliance. In a bathroom where the humidity level is high, it is necessary to put a socket with a distribution transformer.
Wiring is not always open, although this is the most optimal option, allowing repairs without touching the electrical network. Some people prefer to conduct hidden wiring in a panel house, hiding it under a layer of plaster, in the floor or in the ceiling.
Video "replacement of electrical wiring in a panel house"
Stacking under plaster
When the electrical wires are hidden behind the finish, the channels are pre-created in the wall under the box to insert the cable. After this, the wire is fixed with metal clips and covered with a layer of plaster. Under the layer of the building mixture, many cables can be concealed, which are connected to sockets, lighting devices, an air conditioner, electronic equipment, a washing machine and other equipment.
True, there is no plaster in the building from the plaster panels, causing the building mix to be applied to channels with paved wires with an extremely thin layer. Therefore, the masters are advised to increase the depth of the strobes or finish the walls with sheets of plasterboard, the installation of which is not burdensome.
Installation on the floor and ceiling
If the cables are decided to be hidden behind the floor covering, they use corrugations and make a concrete screed. In this case, the wires can be connected directly to the devices and sockets. In this case, the floor can be made warm, heated with cables placed in the screed.
If the owners of the panel house are intended to make a false ceiling, then the main cables are not forbidden to place on it. This way of laying the wires can seem complicated, since it implies the creation in the wall of the channels for the concealed wiring going to the switches and sockets. These vertical stitches, where the electrical network will be hidden, should be drilled by means of a perforator or shtroborez.
It must be borne in mind that, due to the creation of channels, the structure is weakened.Therefore, in order not to damage the reinforcement, which supports the ceiling and walls, the wires can not be located at a depth of more than 1 cm.To prevent the loss of wiring from the groove, use alabaster or dowel-clamps, which require small holes.
The work to dismantle the old wiring hidden in the ceiling will be less dusty and better if you first drill about 10 holes around the perimeter and then knock out the concrete with a chisel. The old wiring will simply need to be pulled out, and the new one should be retracted using steel wire.
Step-by-step instruction for laying the wiring in the apartment
Before dismantling the old wiring, you need to take care of the electric shock of the perforator. It is a question of attaching a triple sockets and a 16 A machine with a 4 mm2 cable to a thick board. In addition, it is necessary to prepare an extension cord for work that can reach any part of the room.
Sequence of work
In order for a new electrical wiring to appear in the apartment, you will have to perform the following tasks one by one:
- to de-energize the house and take out furniture from the room;
- remove old wires;
- create grooves and fix wires in them;
- Mount the distribution boxes;
- draw wires to the electrical panel and lighting devices;
- test the operation of the electrical network.
With the first stage of work, problems usually do not arise. Absence of electricity in the apartment must be checked with a multimeter. Sockets and switches are temporarily removed. And the second stage, that is, the dismantling of the old cable, involves the removal of wires from the distribution box.
Shtroblenie and excavation
Shtroby, regardless of whether they are vertical or horizontal, should be even. Twisted grooves are a common cause of crash walls and ceiling.Channels made in the vertical direction should be led away from the ceiling 50 cm.Therefore, in this case, you can not do without a ladder with side stops.
Limits for the channels are first denoted by a grinder, the disc of which is immersed to a depth equal to the diameter of the corrugation, and to the width of the drill bit. After that, using a chisel, make a stroba. In the corners of the cutting machine create an oblique cut and knock out the hole. This will help to make the bending of the goffer smooth.
Lunks, which will be inserted podrozetniki, in the concrete punch a chisel, and in the brickwork - a crown.A recess for the opening shield is created exclusively by a chisel. By the way, do not double the channel under the switches. It is more reasonable to purchase corrugation and place several cables in it.
Immediately after the above described work, you should do the installation of the dispensing boxes. To fix them in place, they usually use cement mortar. In this case, the cable is supposed to be laid from the switchboard to the switch boxes.
Video "How to Shield the Walls for Wire"
Laying of wiring in the channel
Before installing new electrical wires, measure the necessary cable lengths and corrugations. Inside the corrugation wire is more convenient to tighten on the floor. After this task is completed, the wells on the alabaster cushion are inserted into the wells, and into the stitrods, the corrugation with the cable is inserted. In this case, the edges of the wires are directed to the sub-grid, which are covered with alabaster to the surface of the wall.On the grooves with the corrugation the construction mixture is applied every 50 cm.
If it is necessary to install single pole switches, the ends of the zero (blue) wire are immediately twisted, processed with a soldering iron and in 3 layers sealed with an insulating tape so that the first layer would come in 20 mm wires. Winding the cable with insulating tape, one layer is overlapped by another 50%.
Wiring for devices and for lighting
The installation of wires ends with the insertion of the ends of the corrugations into the input shield and their lubrication with conductive paste. The edges of the profiles are seized with a tin clip on the screw, which is connected by cutting the PE wire to the ground terminal of the input shield.
When placed in an electrical shield, the wires are divided into separate lines, for which their own switches are required.Ignore this rule can not, because it is fraught with the fact that the wires can not cope with the transfer of current to household appliances that consume a lot of electricity.
The electrical flap is applied to the mounting point on the wall to mark out and drill the holes for the dowels. Then, completely de-energizing the apartment, wires not yet attached to the shield are introduced. After that, the VN is hoisted into place, fixing with dowels.
Having made sure of serviceability of the electric network, they begin to spread the mortar with the construction mixture, install outlets, switches and lighting devices. Before the plastering of the channels, it is advised to fill foam or ordinary paper in the pads, and the opening flap and the counter with a polyethylene film.
As a result of the plastering and painting works and gluing to the walls of the wallpaper, the cheeks and the opening shield will be invisible. They just need to feel for their hands and open by cutting out the wallpaper on the contour. Drain pads should be cleaned of sand in them and close them with sockets. In addition, at this stage of the installation of switches and fixtures.
Video "Laying of concealed wiring"
Replace the wiring in the panel house, without hiring electricians, really. For this, we must seriously consider the development of the electrical circuit and lay the wires as required by the instruction..