Universal capabilities of an electric drill
The first electric motor was invented in 1834 by the Russian scientist B.S. Jacobi. In the next 30 years, electric tools began to appear on the basis of an electric motor. The first drill began to work in 1868 in the office of the American dentist D. Green. A modern instrument was acquired in 1916, when the mechanics of Black and Dekker designed the case in the form of a pistol with a button in place of the trigger.
Today the drill with attachments has turned into a universal tool, which is used in dozens of works. How is it safe to use a drill? How to install attachments, insert and pull a drill bit?
1What is a drill used for?
- 1.1Video: drill - inside view
- 2Preparation for work
3How to insert a drill correctly?
- 3.1Video: how to insert a drill bit and secure it
4How to remove a drill from a cartridge?
- 4.1Video: how to change a drill
5How to use the drill correctly?
- 5.1How to make a vertical or horizontal hole
- 5.2How to make a hole perpendicular to the surface or at an angle
- 5.3How to Drill Metal
- 5.4How to Drill Concrete
- 5.5How to Drill a Tree
- 5.6How to make a groove in a wooden board
5.7How to drill a brick
- 5.7.1Video: drilling a brick wall
- 6The basic malfunctions of a drill and ways of their elimination
7Drill bits and their installation
- 7.1Polishing nozzle
- 7.2Nozzles for rough cleaning of materials
- 7.3.1Video: scissors for metal "Cricket"
- 7.4Nozzle - file
- 7.5Milling attachments
- 7.6.1For cutting materials
- 7.6.2For drilling large holes
- 7.6.3Photo gallery: drills for large holes
- 7.6.4To tighten fasteners
- 7.6.5Drill Mixer
- 7.6.6Drill-drilling machine
- 7.6.7Video: Drilling machine from a drill with your own hands
What is a drill used for?
The main purpose of the drill is to drill various materials. Calculations of technical indicators for the design of new models are based precisely on this task.
During operation, the electric motor rotates the cartridge with the drill clamped in it. Speed of movement is regulated by means of the special rheostat, controlled by the start button. The direction of movement can be changed by switching the reverse lever. The function of changing the direction of rotation will help if the drill is jammed at the exit of the material. In addition, with a special nozzle drill can be used as a screwdriver - to twist and unscrew the screws.
Often drills have two or more speeds. This is achieved by means of a reducer connecting the motor with the working shaft. A change in the gear ratio of gears leads to a change in the speed of rotation and the power of the working tool.
Video: drill - inside view
Power tools of this category have, as a rule, two basic operating modes. Full-time drilling and drilling with impact. The standard mode is used during plumbing and carpentry work. Impact drilling is designed for making holes in stone walls, concrete and brick.
The impact mechanism of the drill consists of two, coaxially arranged ratchets, which, when interacting, give the working shaft additional forward motion. This uses special drills with carbide taps at the end of the working part. The impact force of such a mechanism depends on the external pressure on the drill. To drill quickly, a force of 10-15 kg should be applied to the body.
Preparation for work
The readiness of the drill to work is determined by the following conditions:
- The device is connected to the outlet (for drills operating from the electrical network);
- the battery is charged and installed in the compartment (for battery tools);
- a drill is installed in the chuck.
Attention! To make the hole smooth, the cutting edge of the drill must be sharpened. Take a new drill or sharpen the old with a grindstone..
To check the power, you can press the start button. If the cartridge rotates quickly, it means that the motor is supplied with electric current and the tool is ready for operation.If the cartridge of the cordless drill turns slowly, the battery is discharged - it needs to be put on charging.
How to insert a drill correctly?
In order to correctly insert a drill in the cartridge, you need to know the following. The hole intended for clamping the tool has a depth of not more than 2 cm. The deeper the drill is planted, the more reliable it will be in the cartridge. Clamping mechanisms of cartridges are of two types:
- hand tightened by hand;
- key, are wrapped with a key.
In recent years, household models of drills are equipped with a manual (quick-clamping) cartridge - it is easier to set up and quickly put into operation.
To install the drill in the chuck, you need to perform the following steps:
- Turn the cartridge counterclockwise. Sponges should disperse to a distance slightly larger than the diameter of the drill bit.
- Insert the drill between the jaws until it stops.
- Smoothly turn the cartridge clockwise, making sure that the drill is clamped evenly on all sides.
- Tighten the sponge with your hand or key.
Attention! Before drilling, turn on the drill and look at the drill. A properly installed tool does not hit and looks like a smooth line..
Video: how to insert a drill bit and secure it
When fixing the drill in the chuck, considerable effort can be exerted, especially if the drill has a large diameter. It should be remembered that then you have to do the reverse operation to remove the drill or replace it with another.Clamping the drill, look for the "golden mean fasten the drill reliably, but that it can be easily removed from the cartridge.The required effort is easily determined after a little practice - the muscle memory is turned on.
How to remove a drill from a cartridge?
Before removing the drill, make sure that the drill is disconnected from the socket, do not accidentally press the start button of the battery tool.Remove the drill only after the cartridge has completely stopped rotating..
Attention! Never brake the cartridge by hand, this may result in injury..
If the drill is equipped with a quick-action chuck, the steps for extracting the drill are as follows:
- Remove finger from the start button.
- Wait until the chuck is completely stopped.
- Take the cartridge by the base with one hand. Use the other hand to turn it counter-clockwise.
- When the cartridges of the cartridge disperse to a sufficient distance, remove the drill.
- Carefully place the drill on the table, making sure that it does not roll off.
If the drill is equipped with a cartridge with a key, proceed as follows:
- Turn off the drill, wait for the cartridge to stop.
- Insert the key into the hole in the socket.
- Turn the key counterclockwise so that it moves the cartridge.
- Unscrew the cartridge by hand so that the sponge releases the bit.
- Remove the drill from the socket.
- Place the key in the hole on the wire so that it does not get lost.
Video: how to change a drill
How to use the drill correctly?
A drill is a powerful electric tool that is a source of danger. The basic rules for safe work with the drill are as follows:
- Before starting work, secure the workpiece securely in a vise or clamp. Do not hold the item in your hands.
- Firmly fasten the drill or tooling in the chuck. Tighten the chuck by hand or tighten with a wrench. Be sure to remove the key from the hole in the chuck.
- Working with solid and massive materials, hold the power tool with both hands.
- Do not apply pressure to the drill housing so that the drill does not jam. Reduce the pressure at the exit of the drill from the workpiece.
- Use personal protective equipment: glasses, respirator, gloves.
- Switch modes and change tool only after the cartridge has completely stopped.
- Sweep the shavings with a brush only.
How to make a vertical or horizontal hole
To make a vertical or horizontal hole, you must perform the following steps:
- Mark the place for the hole.
- Install the drill bit in the required diameter.
- Bring the tool and set the drill to the mark.
- Smoothly start the engine and push the drill housing.
- When the hole is ready to take out the drill, do not turn off the motor.
- Release the start button, wait for the cartridge to stop.
- Place the drill on a flat surface.
Attention! Do not be distracted from work until the hole is completely ready..
How to make a hole perpendicular to the surface or at an angle
If you want to make a hole perpendicular to the surface, you can use a protractor or square. Home masters have thought up how to drill a hole at an angle of 90 degrees to the surface without a goniometer. An old CD is placed on the surface of the workpiece. The drill is leveled so that the visible part of the drill coincides with its reflection in the "mirror" of the disk. In this case, the hole will be made strictly perpendicular to the surface.
If it is required that the hole go at an angle to the surface, it is necessary to fix the workpiece under this angle. The most accurate holes will come out if you use a special rack-clamp for the drill.
How to Drill Metal
Drilling metal surfaces has its own characteristics. First of all, you need to pick up a drill, designed for these purposes.Drill for wood or stone is not suitable for metal, stainless steel or cast iron.These drills differ not only in steel grade, but also in the angle of sharpening of the cutting edge.
When working, there is no need to rotate the bit at high speed, the drill will slip over the surface without catching the material. Optimum speed when drilling metal is low, when you can see with your naked eye how thin chips are formed. The pressure on the drill can be considerable, but within reasonable limits, such that the drill does not break. When drilling steel and cast iron, it is recommended to lubricate the drill with engine oil for cooling..
In order for the drill to catch on to hard material, it is recommended to make a groove in the drilling point at the drilling point. The drill will not lead to the side..
How to Drill Concrete
When drilling concrete, stone or brick, a lot of dust is released, small fragments can fly out from under the drill. Use a respirator to protect the respiratory system and eye protection glasses..
Council. Reduce the amount of dust can be by moistening the workpiece or the place of drilling with water..
If you need to drill concrete, the best option is to use drills, equipped with a winning tap on the end. Such drills are best able to cope with the task, as needed, they can be periodically sharpened.
The impact mode is incorporated in the design of the drill for drilling stone objects.Use the blow mode carefully.If tiles are drilled, it should not be turned on, since the impact will inevitably lead to chipping of the ceramic. The same can be said about hollow bricks - it is dense, but brittle.
The recommended speed of the drill is medium. Adjust the pressure on the drill housing, it is necessary based on the properties of the material. But in any case, the movement should be smooth and measured..
Attention! When drilling stone and concrete, the drill becomes very hot. Before replacing the tool, wait for it to cool before burning..
How to Drill a Tree
Wood - soft and easy to drill material, perfectly processed and polished.When drilling wooden products it is recommended to use special drills for wood.
It's best to start working with a marking, marking a hole for the pencil. Further, by resting the end of the drill to the intended point, turn on the maximum rotation speed and gently dip the drill into the wood. If the hole is deep - from time to time you need to pull the rotating drill to the surface, so that it can free itself from the chips.
Often in modern life, you may have to make a hole in the plastic. Basically, plastic is drilled in the same way as wood, as it is a soft material. Some synthetic materials (for example, ebonite, textolite, caprolon) possess great hardness. To handle such plastics, it is better to use drills designed for metal.
How to make a groove in a wooden board
If you need to make a groove in the wooden board, this can be done with an electric drill.
To make a groove, it is necessary to do the following steps:
- Take a drill in a tree, the diameter of which corresponds to the width of the future groove.
- Along the groove, mark the holes so that their centers are at a distance of half the diameter of the drill.
- Drill all holes to a depth of 2-3 mm - so the drill will not go away.
- Drill all holes to the end.
- With a file, remove the jumpers (if left) and smooth the irregularities.
How to drill a brick
Brick is a fairly soft material, so it can be drilled with an electric drill with a blow function.
Drilling the brick wall is as follows:
- Mark the place of the future hole with a pencil or marker.
- Put a core or an old drill bit on the mark.
- To put 2-3 blows with a hammer, that on a brick there is a deepening - then the drill will not take away.
- Install a drill in the drill, turn on the impact mode.
- Drill a hole, gently pressing the tool.
Note. If the finished hole should be more than 10 mm, it is recommended first to drill a hole with a drill of a smaller diameter - 6-8 mm, and then drill to the desired diameter..
Video: drilling a brick wall
The basic malfunctions of a drill and ways of their elimination
No matter how perfect the technique, sooner or later, there comes a point when the technological resource is exhausted, and this or that part requires replacement.
An electric drill is no exception. Here is a list of possible, most common problems:
- Malfunction of the motor (power supply is OK, but the motor does not rotate).
- Wear or burn the carbon brushes (when the brush device is very sparked).
- Failure of bearings of the engine support (the buzz of the motor is heard, but there is no rotation, or the cartridge rotates intermittently, with a grating).
In addition, the causes of the unstable operation of the electric drill can be related to the integrity of the power cord or the sagging of the start button. Such problems are solved by replacing the cable and preventive cleaning of the button from debris and dust.
To repair the drill at home, it will take a lot of special tools, including electrical measuring instruments. If they are not, it is cheaper to give a drill for repairs to a service center.Replacement of carbon brushes is quite possible for the home master.In all new models of drills, designers have provided quick access to the place of attachment of the brushes and their simple replacement.
Drill bits and their installation
In addition to drilling holes, the electric drill is capable of performing many other diverse operations. For this, various nozzles have been developed and manufactured, with the help of which it is possible to grind, polish, cut or sharpen. All attachments are attached to the drill chuck, as well as the usual drill bit.
It is intended for polishing surfaces with the help of abrasive materials. It can be sandpaper or felt base, on which GOI paste is applied. The nozzle is a rotating flat surface, which processes the grinding material.
Nozzles for rough cleaning of materials
Wire strippers (corts) are used to strip metal surfaces (eg pipes). They represent a cylinder, on the surface of which there are rigid bristles made of metal wire. They are produced with different stiffening bristles starting from thin wire, and ending with pieces of cables.
A nozzle called "cricket turns a drill into a metal shearing scissors.
With the help of "cricket" it is possible to cut openings in metal sheets up to, mm thick. The nozzle is very well proven in roofing works, when it is necessary to adjust and cut metal sheets of a given shape.
Video: scissors for metal "Cricket"
Nozzle - file
A nozzle made of abrasive material makes it possible to considerably simplify the work when performing work on grinding the parts, adjusting the grooves and holes. Presented by a wide variety of grinding stones of various shapes and sizes. Among the baits there are conical, cylindrical, flat, spherical stones.
Drill bits designed for milling operations on wood or plastic are also called cutters. With their help it is possible to make a groove, a groove, a recess of the set sizes.
In shape and purpose, the cutters are divided into:
- end and end;
The type of the milling cutter is selected for a specific task in accordance with the density of the material and the power of the electric drill.
For cutting materials
There is a nozzle with which you can cut wood, metal or plastic. The principle of operation of its mechanism is similar to the device of electric jigsaw. The set includes a set of saws with a different shape and number of teeth. Such a nozzle can easily cope with cutting a wooden board with a thickness of up to 20 mm, as well as chipboard or plywood. For cutting more massive blanks, it is better to use an electric jigsaw.
For drilling large holes
For drilling large diameter holes, special tools and tools are produced that can be used as a tool for an electric drill. For making large holes use:
- crowns - steel cylinders with teeth or spraying - for wood, stone or tiles;
- feather drills - metal plates with a center and two blades - for wood and plywood;
- beam drills - long pins with spiral grooves - for drilling thick wooden beams;
- The Forstner drill is a special shaped tool with numerous cutting edges for accurate and clean holes in the tree.
Photo gallery: drills for large holes
To tighten fasteners
A wide distribution and application have received attachments to the drill, intended for screwing screws, bolts and nuts. Their diversity is comparable only to the huge range of products that exist in the world of fasteners. With these attachments, provided that the speed range of the drill includes low-speed modes, the electric drill turns into a full-fledged screwdriver or screwdriver.
You can not ignore such a useful practical function of the electric drill as its use as a mixer while mixing paints, gypsum and other mixtures.
Using a special whisk for mixing, you can successfully give the right shade to the paint at home or stir the glue for wallpapering. In addition, light building mixtures, such as gypsum or putty, can also be kneaded using a drill.
It should be remembered that excessive overload on the drill can damage the main mechanism of the tool - the electric motor.It is not recommended to use a drill as a mixer when mixing heavy concrete mixes.For this, there are special concrete mixers and mixers.
Attention! If the body of the drill has warmed up and the motor is humming, then stop and allow the unit to cool down..
The drill can be used as a drilling machine. Drilling workpieces will be much more convenient. The stores sell finished racks with a clamp for the drill, a feed lever and a vice.
Drilling machine from an electric drill can be made by hand.Such a machine consists of a bed, a vertical stand, a rotational mechanism and a feeder. Despite the simplicity of the design, the machine significantly improves the accuracy of machining of parts.
Video: Drilling machine from a drill with your own hands
Among the numerous baits on the electric drill produced by the industry, there are also such "exotic" copies, as a nozzle-pump for pumping liquids or a special nozzle for plucking feathers of a home birds. In everyday life they are not so often in demand as a carpentry and metalwork tool, which is used in almost every home.
An electric drill can save money and save energy. For home and one-time work, you do not need to buy several professional machines. Special nozzles will make the tool universal: drilling and cutting, grinding and turning, kneading and chiselling - this is far from a complete list of operations available for the drill. To work was a joy, you must follow the safety rules..