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video The city squares and other people who are working for you and the people who are working with you can not get rid of it. It is the majestic chestnut tree that takes pride of place in the landscape design of many parks. They resemble the powerful giants guarding the royal motorcade. Such a presentable appearance pleases the eye of visitors for many months. Moreover, the fruits of these representatives of the Cedar family are tasty and good for health. These are just some of the reasons why each gardener should expand the assortment of his garden with a chestnut tree. The description of this perennial plant is worthy of a separate literary work.
Some sources say that its birthplace is Europe, and others - Australia. However, in the world there are from 14 to 30 species. Most of them can be found in China, Japan, North America and European countries.
Without the slightest flaw
If you organize a beauty contest among the trees, the chestnut, without a doubt, would take one of the top places. The refined and unusual beauty of the inflorescences, leaves and luxurious crown look harmoniously with the formidable look of this titanium. This paradoxical combination can be characterized by the following rows of magnificent features:
- inflorescences are presented in the form of pyramidal candles( each up to 15 cm in length);
- cream colored flowers with pinkish spots and oblong tendrils in the center;
- leaves collected in luxurious fans( 5-7 in one bundle), which are arranged spirally on the shoots;
- oblong leaves( 10-20 cm) of dark green color have a jagged edge and in shape resemble the tip of a medieval spear;
- dense crown of ovoid / round shape grows up to 20 meters wide;
- brown, glossy coated fruit nuts hidden prickly shell, which splits into four parts when ripe or hard;
- the lower part of the trunk with time becomes bare, and the tree gets a gorgeous look.
These perennial plants love the sun so much that they grow to 15-30 meters. Of course, such a result can be waited only a few decades later. In this regard, many are interested in how long a chestnut tree grows. It is worth knowing that in 12 months the trunk of this giant increases by 30-50 cm. Therefore, by the fourth year of its existence, its growth will be about 1 meter. At the same time, the tree will be able to meet the 10th spring of its “life” with fascinating flowering and magnificent fruits.
The powerful root system and dense bark allows the chestnut to tolerate extreme cold. In this case, the trees are adapted to different types of soil. Nevertheless, it is better for them to choose non-saline, well-drained and moist soil.
Three nuts for Cinderella
A beautiful and powerful chestnut tree can grow from an ordinary brown fruit. Planting and care at home for his seedlings are very simple, but have some subtleties. Gardeners are known for two variants of nut germination: autumn and spring. In this case, the harvest is necessary after the fruits fall to the ground. Choose hard nuts with a perfectly smooth edge and no damage. Before autumn planting, it must be stratified. For this you need:
- to collect in the container wet sand;
- do not bury the fruit very deeply in it;
- leave for 10 days in a cool place;
- land on the land, which is moderately heated by the sun.
If a farmer plans to plant in the spring season, then the container with sand and nuts should be stored in the basement / refrigerator all winter. Some advise prikopat this container somewhere in the garden.
However, one cannot do without losses. If the gardener wants to plant only one copy, he should prepare three or more nuts. Extra seedlings can always be presented to neighbors.
7 days before disembarking, which may fall at the end of February or March, a container with valuable genetic material must be removed from the basement. Over the next 5 days, the fruit is soaked in warm water. In this case, the fluid should be constantly changed, because it can deteriorate. Thanks to this “spa procedure”, the peel becomes softer and the embryo wakes up. When a white sprout appears, a chestnut can be planted in a small pot with earth, taking into account the following wishes:
- planting container volume should not be more than 500 ml;
- the soil must be sufficiently wet;
- fruit should be placed in the ground, but not very deep( 3-5 cm), otherwise it either dries or does not germinate;
- periodically watered.
After half a month, the gardener can already admire the first shoots. When the danger of night frost is over, and this is the second half of May, then the seedling can be transferred to its “permanent place of residence”.
It is worth considering that the chestnut tree is a real titanium. Therefore, the distance between seedlings should be increased to 3 meters. As a result, the crown of each of them will be thicker, the flowering period is longer, and the fruits will be tastier.
The Secret Methodology of
Of course, there is a lot of debate about when to plant these trees. However, each of these options has its advantages. Autumn "people" ascend faster. Nevertheless, spring growth is characterized by intensive growth, resistance to frost and a healthier appearance. Among other things, the landing process itself plays an important role in this matter. Here is what experts advise in this regard:
- Carefully remove the roots of the seedling from the container. The land lump should be up to 50 cm in diameter.
- Dig a hole 2 times the root system. At its bottom it is necessary to lay out several layers of rubble / pebbles, which will serve as a drainage device. The optimum height of such a “foundation” is 10 cm.
- Prepare a substrate of sand, humus and black soil( 1: 1: 2).All this needs to be mixed with hydrated lime( 0.5 kg).At the same time, phosphate-potassium fertilizers are recommended to be added to each well.
- 1/2 of the prepared substrate is poured into the drainage and filled with water. Then the seedling is settled, which should be covered with earth in several visits. After tamping the soil near the radical neck, the tree should be watered.
- A sapling is accepted faster if the ground near it is covered with mulch( humus, foliage or sawdust) or paper bags.
- A small fence is being constructed around the trunk. With a strong wind, the young tree is important to fix the ropes.
Do not forget about the importance of feeding. It is carried out both in spring and autumn. In the first case, it is diluted urea or mullein( 10 liters of water for 10 liters), and in the second case, nitroammophoska( the proportions are the same).
The first time an unprotected seedling should be constantly watered, and periodically loosen the earth. With the onset of cold weather, branches should be wrapped with sacking, and the roots should be protected with a large “cushion” of dried leaves and humus. At the age of four should be pruned. First, it is desirable to shorten the main rod by ¼ of its length, and then - the side branches. Due to this, the crown will grow thick and symmetrical.
Especially dangerous diseases and pests
Like any other tree, chestnut is not protected from diseases, and rusty leaves are the first and most common problem. Dried brown foliage makes the majestic giants miserable and helpless. Such a sad picture can be seen in many cities in the middle of summer. Experts identify the following types of spots:
- Brown. Rusty small spots quickly progress and cover the whole piece. Manifested on both sides.
- Perforated. Occurs with excessive soil moisture or potassium deficiency. In this case, the leaves are often treated with Bordeaux liquid every 10 days. This procedure is carried out immediately after the flowering period.
- Red Brown. The reasons are connected with sharp temperature drops or with very hot weather conditions.
- Black. When the buds have not woken up yet, the tree should be completely sprayed with copper sulfate solution.
Spraying procedures are carried out in the evening to avoid additional burns.
In addition to these diseases, the chestnut tree suffers from wood mites, powdery mildew( white bloom in the form of cobwebs) and a chestnut moth. To combat them are advised to make phosphate or potash supplements. Leaves affected by dew should be removed and burned, and the crown should be treated with fungicides every 2 weeks. Of course, these dangerous pests / diseases need to be fought at an early stage, because they are rapidly progressing. Such measures will help to preserve the external attractiveness of the perennial plant.