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climate of the Urals and Siberiacharacterized by a certain severity and unpredictability. Therefore, the apple trees in this region should have the appropriate endurance and winter hardiness. At present, quite a lot of selection varieties of columnar apple trees have been created, which are capable of growing and producing a good crop even in the most severe climatic latitudes. They can be divided into 3 groups.
- Ranetki are the most winter-hardy bush-shaped apple trees with small fruits, weighing no more than 15 g.
- Semi-Cultures - have a slightly lower winter hardiness, but the normal winter is tolerated normally. Grown in bushy form, fruit weight from 15 to 130 g.
- The formation of the creeping stanus crown in most cases is carried out artificially. In addition, several new varieties of natural shale were also developed.
The most popular varieties of apple trees for the Urals and Siberia are the following:
- White Filling;
- Silver Hoof;
- Autumn Gift;
- Summer Striped;
- Ural Bulk.
However, the Urals region may not be entirely favorable even for specially bred varieties. For example, late frosts can adversely affect apple trees during flowering, destroying the entire crop. Therefore, to create a garden, it is necessary to choose different varieties of apple trees, taking into account their growing season, frost and winter hardiness. Read also about columnar apple trees on our site!
Winter frost-resistant variety. Main features:
- large tree, with a spreading crown;
- apple fruits Antonovka large, weighing 125-150 g, with a yellowish-green peel;
- white pulp, juicy, wine-colored;
- fruit ripening - September;
- yield - 200–300 kg per tree;
- storage - 3 months;
- resistance to frost is good;
- fruits are used fresh, for drying, making compotes, juices, marmalade and marshmallow.
Antonovka apple fruit is harvested in September, and consumer maturity occurs a month after harvest.
White Apple Pouring
Summer winter-hardy variety. Main characteristics:
- tree height is medium, crown is rounded, stannum is easily formed;
- Apple fruit White Filling medium, weighing 100 - 150 g, round, with a greenish-yellow skin;
- white flesh, coarse, sweet-sour;
- removable maturity comes in August;
- yield is 100 kg per tree;
- storage - 2 weeks;
- resistance to frost is high; disease resistance is medium;
- fruits are used fresh and for preservation.
Apple Fruits White Filling unsuitable for long-term storage, because they deteriorate rapidly. Therefore, it is best to use them for processing.
Canadian Late-summer variety. Key Features:
- tree of medium height, with a rounded crown, in the Urals and in Siberia is grown in stanlantic form;
- Apple fruit Melba large, weighing 140-200 g. The rind is light green with a rich red blush;
- pulp snow-white, sweet-sour, with caramel flavor;
- ripen in August;
- yield - 120 kg per tree;
- storage in a cool room - until January;
- resistance to diseases and frost is average;
- fruits are used fresh, for processing into compotes and juices.
Apple Melba forms many upright long shoots that make it difficult to form into stanace. Therefore, additional pruning and timely pinning is required.
Early summer stantium variety. Main characteristics:
- tree of moderate growth, with a dense rounded crown;
- apple fruits Papiola small, weighing up to 100 g, rounded, slightly ribbed, greenish-yellow skin;
- white flesh, friable, sweet-sour;
- ripen in August;
- yield - 150-250 kg per tree;
- storage - 15–30 days;
- winter hardiness and disease resistance is good;
- universal grade.
Apple Tree Papilla is self-productive, the best pollinator for it is the Welsey variety.
Apple Tree Welsey
Winter variety imported from America. Main features:
- medium-sized tree with a pyramidal crown;
- medium fruit, weighing 90–150 g, greenish-yellow peel with a red blush;
- white flesh, with a pink tinge near the peel, crispy, sweet and sour;
- The harvest of the fruits of the Welse apple tree occurs in September-October;
- yield is 150-200 kg per tree;
- storage - until January;
- winter and frost resistance average;
- universal grade.
The stanted apple tree crown of Welsey forms at a distance of 25–50 cm from the soil: by bending down and pruning, the branches of a tree are kept in this position throughout its life.
Apple Tree Silver Hoof
Summer skoroplodny grade. Large semi-culture. Main characteristics:
- tree is low, with a rounded branched crown;
- fruits are small, one-dimensional, weighing 85 g, rounded. The peel is smooth, cream, with an orange-red shade;
- pulp has a fine-grained structure, juicy, sour-sweet;
- ripen the Silverhoof apple fruit in August;
- yield - 160 kg per tree;
- storage - 4-6 weeks;
- disease and frost resistance is high;
- fruits are used fresh and for processing.
It is necessary to regularly feed the Silverhoof apple tree and monitor the level of humidity. Because as the soil fertility decreases, fruits can decrease in size, and with prolonged high humidity the tree becomes vulnerable to scab.
Apple Tree Autumn Gift
Autumn high-yielding variety. Main characteristics:
- tree tall, with a rounded crown;
- Apple fruits Autumn Gift large, weighing 140 g, flat-round, with a yellow skin;
- yellowish flesh, sweet and sour, soft, does not darken for a long time;
- fruit ripening - August-September;
- yield - 150 kg per tree;
- storage - 60 days;
- resistance to disease and frost is good;
- usage is universal.
For the pollination of apple trees Autumn Gift is best suited grade Anis Sverdlovsk.
Apple Tree Summer Striped
Summer early variety. Key Features:
- tree srednerosly, has a compact crown;
- fruits are small, weighing 70–80 g, oblong-ovate, pink-red peel;
- flesh is white, grainy, juicy, sweet-sour;
- ripening and eat fruits - July-August;
- apple crop Summer Striped - 120 kg per tree;
- storage - 2-4 weeks;
- disease resistance is moderate; frost is good;
- usage is universal.
Apple Tree Summer Striped needs pollinators, the best of them are Kitayka cream, Miass, Prize.
Apple Ural Bulk
Autumn selection variety. Semi-culture. Main characteristics:
- tree medium, with a thick rounded-drooping crown;
- fruits are small, weighing 28-30 g, rounded. The peel is smooth, glossy, yellow-green;
- the pulp is white, juicy, sweet-sour;
- consumer maturity of apple fruits Ural Bulk comes in September-October;
- yield - 200 kg per tree;
- storage - 2 months;
- high frost resistance;
- usage is universal.
Depending on the method of consumption, there are 3 periods of apple fruit maturity.
Features of growing
Planting and caring for apples in the Urals and in Siberia has some nuances. This is especially true of the winter period, during which trees require increased attention. The fact is that with a strong and deep freezing of soil, the root system of even very hardy varieties can be damaged. Therefore, for the winter, the near-wellbore circle is recommended to fall asleep with a layer of peat and humus, 7–10 centimeters thick. And on top cover it with leaves and snow.
In order to protect young apple trees from strong winds, it is recommended to tie them to a support installed near the seedling. You can also attach to it and each branch separately.
Landing. It is possible to plant apple trees in the Urals in late autumn so that the sapling does not have time to grow and is not damaged by frost. Or in early spring, after the last snow comes down. In this case, by the arrival of real heat, the root system adapts to the new ground, and the tree will begin to develop. For planting, it is recommended to choose fertile, nitrogen-rich soil, with deep groundwater.
Apple tree care traditionally consists of watering, feeding and pruning:
- Watering. Careful watering is necessary for apple trees immediately after planting. In subsequent years, they are watered only in too dry years.
- Feeding. After the tree has taken root and has gone to growth, it is necessary to feed the apple tree. It is recommended to use nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizers. To fertilizer quickly reached the root system, the tree needs to be watered after feeding.
- Trimming. Formation of the crown is performed one year after planting, and in subsequent years, preventive pruning is performed. In the spring it is recommended to cut the branches to the maximum in order to activate their growth. This, in turn, contributes to high yields and larger fruit sizes.