Drainage project site: rules of design + choice of location, slope, depth, elements of the system

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Piping system and trench constructed with the purpose of removing excess moisture from the area called drainage. The collected water from the entire output to storage or discharged into the ditch located outside the border area.

To create a favorable soil environment for the growth of crops and prevent flooding building objects, you must carefully consider the drainage project site, to find the optimal scheme.

The content of the article:

  • The appointment of a garden site drainage
  • Elements of drainage structures
  • What kind of prefer
    • Features an open drain
    • closed drainage varieties
  • Drawing up of the drainage system project
  • That take into account when designing
    • The depth and size of line
    • Standards bias culverts
  • Popular schemes of drainage systems
  • Useful videos on the topic

The appointment of a garden site drainage

reclamation activities, according to regulations (SNIP 06/02/15), carried out in the forest and agricultural grounds that the soil has become the most suitable for the cultivation of fruit trees, grain and vegetable cultures. To form this complex system of trenches open or closed pipeline, the main purpose of which - drain overly moist portions.

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The ultimate goal of collecting water in the taps and sleeves of various types - artificial or natural reservoirs (when conditions permit), special drainage ditches, wells or storage tanks.

On the same principle design piping network to suburban area, regardless of its area - 6 or 26 ares. If the area suffers from frequent flooding after rain or spring floods, the construction of catchment facilities required. Accumulation of excess moisture contribute to the clay soil: sandy loam loam and because neither passes or very poorly water is passed into the underlying layers.

drainage trench
Often buried in the ground pipes if terrain allows, replace the outdoor facilities - ditches and trenches. This open type drainage elements by which the water moves by gravity

Another factor prompting ponder drainage project - an increased level of groundwater, the presence of which can be found without special geological prospecting surveys.

If the territory of the garden they dug a pit under the cesspool or septic tank, and it was filled with water, the aquifers are located in close proximity to the surface of the earth. At the device of a well drilling company, you will get information on the location of aquifers from the experts.

Protection against flooding
Excess moisture in the soil - it is always a risk to the integrity of the foundation of building objects: houses, baths, garage, outbuildings

Even if the foundation survives, there is no guarantee of preservation of a comfortable environment inside the basements and cellars: may cause dampness, premature corrosion, mold and mildew.

Over time, the damp concrete and brick foundations covered with cracks that are difficult to close up. On the contrary, they continue to grow, causing shifts buildings. To prevent the destruction, at the stage of construction of the building is necessary to think about the structure of effective drainage.

Elements of drainage structures

What is a drainage system? This network consisting of various components whose primary purpose is the removal and collection of atmospheric and ground water. The latter are formed as a result of the melting of snow or prolonged rain.

Root underground elements - a drainage tube. They should not be confused with the water and sewer, since it moved only water in the upper layers of the soil, as well as rain and snowmelt.

drainage pipes
Modern type of drainage pipes - products of durable and capable of withstanding heavy loads modified plastic (e.g., IPA). The walls of the pipes are covered with filter holes or notches, some species from above covered with geotextile

Popular more flexible corrugated model. Diameter pipe depends on the volume of the discharged liquid, the standard sectional dimensions: 50 mm, 63 mm, 90 mm, 110 mm, 125 mm, 160 mm, 200 mm. For central thoroughfares selected larger diameter products for branches - smaller. Reinforced tube consist of 2 layers.

In several joints or sleeves in areas where the pipes are rotated at a large angle is set technical (revision) of similar material wells. This broad stretches of corrugated pipe or specially prefabricated model.

The drainage system may also include storage wells are set for efficiency in the lowest points of the plot. Aggregators satisfied, if you can not reset the withdrawn water in a nearby pond. To the wells are all drain lines. They are transported by water, which is often used for irrigation or household purposes.

Drainage pump
If the terrain does not allow for gravity systems, drainage pumps are used. Various models (often submersible type) are used for pumping water through the pipes in the desired direction, features different designs and power

Besides the basic elements of the system required fittings for connecting pipes, geotextiles and building material for arrangement of trenches and wells (sand, gravel or crushed stone, concrete rings, brick).

What kind of prefer

drainage schemes are many, but all varieties can be grouped into three major groups: open, closed and combined. Accordingly, there are three main types of drainage constructions: superficial, deep, and as combined. Consider the characteristics of each.

Features an open drain

Water harvesting is done through an open drainage system of ditches and trenches, that is, objects which are not covered with a layer of earth. Arrange it for the collection and removal of water from the soil and vegetation layer portion. open system operation is based on the ability of underground water rushes into the space vacated by the soil as it flows into the well.

A branched chain at a small angle to the grooves dripped-off water by gravity He moved beyond the border portion (fire pit or pond) or accumulated for watering storage pit.

The walls of the grooves open system if necessary enhance sealing crumpled clay spread cobblestone or tiles. Acceptable conduct strengthening woven by flexible branches of shrubs or trees suitable.

linear drainage
In order to receiving waters portion of the drainage system is not clogged with debris, and sometimes leaves set on top of trenches protective grating

Endpoint collecting floatable water drainage system - natural (rivers, lakes, ponds) and artificial ponds, ditches and ravines, pits, located behind fences suburban area. Drainage network storage type involves collecting transported underground water storage wells.

System features:

  • coverage of all points of water accumulation;
  • calculation of the slope drainage ditches;
  • protecting the system from clogging;
  • measures to prevent the emergence of new wetlands;
  • location of the sump at the bottom of the relief.

Standards inclination angle of channels depends on the type of soil: 0.002 for clay to sand - 0.003.

It is believed that the open drainage is not aesthetic. This is not so, because the developed many ways to design a beautiful outdoor drainage systems.

Decorative design drainage
One way - using a pump to arrange a small waterfall or stream. In the dry season rocky or pebbly bottom turns into a "dry creek", which is among the greenery and looks very attractive

A significant disadvantage of the open drainage lies in the tangible reduction of the useful area of ​​the site. There are restrictions on the laying depth of ditches and grooves, as they are not accepted to arrange below 0.5 - 0.7 m from the surface.

If necessary, build a drainage system on bólshey depth necessary to increase the width of the trench, to arrange catwalks, carefully designed drainage scheme, so as not to impede the movement of people and personal equipment for site.

closed drainage varieties

engineering design is required for arranging closed drainage, since all elements are underground, and their correct location depends on the functionality of the system. Distinguish local and general view of the deep drainage. If you need to protect the foundation of only one building or divert water from the road - a local variety, if you decide to drain the entire area - total.

Local types of systems, in turn, are divided into:

  • pristennye (in clay soils, on the surface, along the perimeter of buildings - houses, bath, garage);
  • reservoir (the soil under the building);
  • ring (in sandy soil around buildings, foundations below).

All of these types of subsurface drainage are to prevent reheating of the foundation, as well as to protect against seepage of groundwater into an epidemic and the basement premises.

The pipes according to the location of the system are divided into various types: horizontal (the most requested in cottages), vertical and combined.

Drainage protection foundation
All these species (trim, ring formation and drainage) are horizontal variations. The pipes have a slightly inclined under the base or around

Everything for vertical systems use pumps. This complex structure, so for the improvement of the private sector it is rarely used. Accordingly, the combined type deep drainage is not circulated.

Drawing up of the drainage system project

To achieve maximum results and create a working water drainage system, it is necessary to make a drainage project. In preparing the plan and recommend a plan based on the guidelines presented in the SNIP 2.06.15-85. Here you can find information about the size, quality and material elements for drainage systems.

The project must include in themselves and the general provisions (for example, the drawing system in the territory suburban area) and work detail all elements - from the drainage pipe to the wells and complex nodes (+)

Mandatory application - estimates indicating the construction activities and the amounts of materials and work.

Before drawing up the project must be on their own or with the help of experts to prepare the following materials:

  • data on the ground and the upper layers of soil (composition, specifications);
  • layout of all significant objects - buildings, pools, gazebos, roads;
  • circuits foundation structures from different angles and in section, showing the size and depth of the bookmark;
  • topographical map suburban area with an indication of terrain features;
  • circuit current surface and being in communication earth;
  • data on the hydrogeological characteristics of the terrain.

Also, in the diagrams and drawings, it is desirable to specify the decorative objects and places of planting of greenery. It is necessary that the elements of the drainage system is not damaged fruit trees, flower-beds, etc. alpine slides.

Projects for sandy and clay soils are different. For example, for the sand is easier to develop a system aimed at lowering the groundwater level and the most effective is the local outdoor drainage for loam. We remind you that the drainage system is functioning effectively only when the professional approach, amateur schemes often do not work.

That take into account when designing

To choose the type of drainage for a holiday home or the location of the channel is influenced by many factors. For example, great importance is the terrain. If the house is on a hill, and the rest of the territory is at a slight incline, then trim drainage, not likely to be required, and the removal of groundwater from the site can be achieved by a system channels.

It is important to the location of groundwater.

Depth laying drain pipes
Difficulty installing buried objects may occur if the level is high enough - 1.5 m in depth. With this arrangement, the installation of a drainage structure is necessary for the protection of buildings and for the safe development of soil

It is necessary to take into account the nature of the surrounding terrain. If the area around the site wetland or near a river, and the plot seems to be dry, in order to prevent also need to design a drainage system.

Let us consider in more detail the nuances that should also be taken into account when laying pipelines and trenches.

The depth and size of line

The location of the closed drainage system pipes are selected on the basis of project development, taking into account the slope towards the sump. Depth of the elements of the system depends on the level of groundwater. To dig a trench device of wall at the level of the foundation base, since its purpose - to enhance the quality of waterproofing and protecting the underground structure of the basement.

Scheme annular drainage
Tubes arranged as a ring, disposed at a distance up to 3 meters from the base. The depth of the pipe is greater than that of the wall structure, and often below the foundations arrangement

Ring drainage choose if construction of the house has been completed, respectively, completed all waterproofing and protective measures.

If the ground garden plot continually suffering from flooding from rain or seepage of ground water, the drainage system is needed throughout. Many variants - from the arrangement of the system perimeter to branched network which involves all suburban objects (buildings, pavements, gardening portion).

The direction of the channel and pipe strict - towards drainage ditches or installations beyond the infield area.

Standards bias culverts

The water in the horizontal pipes will stagnate if stacking accomplished without bias, the parameters of which are specified in the regulations. For clay and sandy soil, which has a different degree of permeability are different standards:

  • loam and clay - from 0.003 or more;
  • sand and loam - from 0,002 or more.

If we translate the values ​​in millimeters, you get 3 mm / rm. m and 2 mm / rm. meter, respectively.

The angle of inclination of pipes
Minimum parameters are taken into account with the fact that the smallest velocity of the water through the channels and pipes is 1.0 m / s. This is possible if the drains are in good working condition, that is not silted and clogged with sand

When calculating the maximal possible rate of charge properties of the surrounding soil into consideration, and dusting quality. You can not make the slope intervals - it must be observed throughout the pipeline / channel. For hilly possible variants with differences drainage device, with the installation of adapters into the manholes.

Popular schemes of drainage systems

Let us consider some schemes that often include holiday drainage project. Among them the system to drain water from the house, as well as drainage designs deployed species.

One of the most common schemes - drainage trim to enhance performance waterproofing protection of basement and plinth.

Scheme drainage of wall
Pristennaja system serves as an effective protection of the basement and the basement from flooding. It prevents destructive processes both on the outside and inside finishes otsyrevanie

Driving the storage device wells for the collection and further use of drainage water is useful to those who are used to economize on natural resources.

Driving device drainage wells
Drain well - large reservoir of plastic, brick or concrete, which is installed at the bottom portion. To him lead pipes and trenches from the entire territory

Option open drainage schemes. The best option for truckers who own gardens with a slope or uneven terrain.

Scheme surface drainage
Legend: 1 - gutter trench; 2 - garden fence portion; 3- outside ditch portion; 4 - channels or drains; 5 - collector. channel location can be changed depending on the specific terrain features

Sketch of the drainage system for the improvement of a garden area and adjacent to the home territory. Judging by the picture, the equipped house in a separate drainage structures are not needed.

Sketch of drainage system
Conventional drainage elements: 1 - channels / outlets; 2 - the central highway, leading to the collector / well; 3 - inspection chambers in places of crossing pipes (for surface drainage are not necessary); 4 - storage pit or drainage tank

Of course, the choice of scheme depends entirely on the conditions of a specific country site, therefore, begin with the study design should own territory.

Useful videos on the topic

A few helpful hints will help to expand the knowledge of drainage systems, and may be useful in the construction of structures or trenches with their hands.

Recommendations for the construction of drainage to protect the budget of the foundation:

Useful information about the different methods of drainage:

Tips for choosing a drain pipe:

drainage system design - responsible occupation, which can handle only a specialist. Improper installation of pipes or errors in the design of engineering structures can cause substantial harm. To protect the house or plot of ground or rain water is to contact the project organization. This does not rule out that some construction activities, you can make your own.

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