Piping system and trench constructed with the purpose of removing excess moisture from the area called drainage. The collected water from the entire output to storage or discharged into the ditch located outside the border area.
To create a favorable soil environment for the growth of crops and prevent flooding building objects, you must carefully consider the drainage project site, to find the optimal scheme.
The content of the article:
- The appointment of a garden site drainage
- Elements of drainage structures
- What kind of prefer
- Features an open drain
- closed drainage varieties
- Drawing up of the drainage system project
- That take into account when designing
- The depth and size of line
- Standards bias culverts
- Popular schemes of drainage systems
- Useful videos on the topic
The appointment of a garden site drainage
reclamation activities, according to regulations (SNIP 06/02/15), carried out in the forest and agricultural grounds that the soil has become the most suitable for the cultivation of fruit trees, grain and vegetable cultures. To form this complex system of trenches open or closed pipeline, the main purpose of which - drain overly moist portions.
The ultimate goal of collecting water in the taps and sleeves of various types - artificial or natural reservoirs (when conditions permit), special drainage ditches, wells or storage tanks.
On the same principle design piping network to suburban area, regardless of its area - 6 or 26 ares. If the area suffers from frequent flooding after rain or spring floods, the construction of catchment facilities required. Accumulation of excess moisture contribute to the clay soil: sandy loam loam and because neither passes or very poorly water is passed into the underlying layers.
Another factor prompting ponder drainage project - an increased level of groundwater, the presence of which can be found without special geological prospecting surveys.
If the territory of the garden they dug a pit under the cesspool or septic tank, and it was filled with water, the aquifers are located in close proximity to the surface of the earth. At the device of a well drilling company, you will get information on the location of aquifers from the experts.
Even if the foundation survives, there is no guarantee of preservation of a comfortable environment inside the basements and cellars: may cause dampness, premature corrosion, mold and mildew.
Over time, the damp concrete and brick foundations covered with cracks that are difficult to close up. On the contrary, they continue to grow, causing shifts buildings. To prevent the destruction, at the stage of construction of the building is necessary to think about the structure of effective drainage.
Elements of drainage structures
What is a drainage system? This network consisting of various components whose primary purpose is the removal and collection of atmospheric and ground water. The latter are formed as a result of the melting of snow or prolonged rain.
Root underground elements - a drainage tube. They should not be confused with the water and sewer, since it moved only water in the upper layers of the soil, as well as rain and snowmelt.
Popular more flexible corrugated model. Diameter pipe depends on the volume of the discharged liquid, the standard sectional dimensions: 50 mm, 63 mm, 90 mm, 110 mm, 125 mm, 160 mm, 200 mm. For central thoroughfares selected larger diameter products for branches - smaller. Reinforced tube consist of 2 layers.
In several joints or sleeves in areas where the pipes are rotated at a large angle is set technical (revision) of similar material wells. This broad stretches of corrugated pipe or specially prefabricated model.
The drainage system may also include storage wells are set for efficiency in the lowest points of the plot. Aggregators satisfied, if you can not reset the withdrawn water in a nearby pond. To the wells are all drain lines. They are transported by water, which is often used for irrigation or household purposes.
Besides the basic elements of the system required fittings for connecting pipes, geotextiles and building material for arrangement of trenches and wells (sand, gravel or crushed stone, concrete rings, brick).
What kind of prefer
drainage schemes are many, but all varieties can be grouped into three major groups: open, closed and combined. Accordingly, there are three main types of drainage constructions: superficial, deep, and as combined. Consider the characteristics of each.
Features an open drain
Water harvesting is done through an open drainage system of ditches and trenches, that is, objects which are not covered with a layer of earth. Arrange it for the collection and removal of water from the soil and vegetation layer portion. open system operation is based on the ability of underground water rushes into the space vacated by the soil as it flows into the well.
A branched chain at a small angle to the grooves dripped-off water by gravity He moved beyond the border portion (fire pit or pond) or accumulated for watering storage pit.
The walls of the grooves open system if necessary enhance sealing crumpled clay spread cobblestone or tiles. Acceptable conduct strengthening woven by flexible branches of shrubs or trees suitable.
Endpoint collecting floatable water drainage system - natural (rivers, lakes, ponds) and artificial ponds, ditches and ravines, pits, located behind fences suburban area. Drainage network storage type involves collecting transported underground water storage wells.
- coverage of all points of water accumulation;
- calculation of the slope drainage ditches;
- protecting the system from clogging;
- measures to prevent the emergence of new wetlands;
- location of the sump at the bottom of the relief.
Standards inclination angle of channels depends on the type of soil: 0.002 for clay to sand - 0.003.
It is believed that the open drainage is not aesthetic. This is not so, because the developed many ways to design a beautiful outdoor drainage systems.
A significant disadvantage of the open drainage lies in the tangible reduction of the useful area of the site. There are restrictions on the laying depth of ditches and grooves, as they are not accepted to arrange below 0.5 - 0.7 m from the surface.
If necessary, build a drainage system on bólshey depth necessary to increase the width of the trench, to arrange catwalks, carefully designed drainage scheme, so as not to impede the movement of people and personal equipment for site.
closed drainage varieties
engineering design is required for arranging closed drainage, since all elements are underground, and their correct location depends on the functionality of the system. Distinguish local and general view of the deep drainage. If you need to protect the foundation of only one building or divert water from the road - a local variety, if you decide to drain the entire area - total.
Local types of systems, in turn, are divided into:
- pristennye (in clay soils, on the surface, along the perimeter of buildings - houses, bath, garage);
- reservoir (the soil under the building);
- ring (in sandy soil around buildings, foundations below).
All of these types of subsurface drainage are to prevent reheating of the foundation, as well as to protect against seepage of groundwater into an epidemic and the basement premises.
The pipes according to the location of the system are divided into various types: horizontal (the most requested in cottages), vertical and combined.
Everything for vertical systems use pumps. This complex structure, so for the improvement of the private sector it is rarely used. Accordingly, the combined type deep drainage is not circulated.
Drawing up of the drainage system project
To achieve maximum results and create a working water drainage system, it is necessary to make a drainage project. In preparing the plan and recommend a plan based on the guidelines presented in the SNIP 2.06.15-85. Here you can find information about the size, quality and material elements for drainage systems.
Mandatory application - estimates indicating the construction activities and the amounts of materials and work.
Before drawing up the project must be on their own or with the help of experts to prepare the following materials:
- data on the ground and the upper layers of soil (composition, specifications);
- layout of all significant objects - buildings, pools, gazebos, roads;
- circuits foundation structures from different angles and in section, showing the size and depth of the bookmark;
- topographical map suburban area with an indication of terrain features;
- circuit current surface and being in communication earth;
- data on the hydrogeological characteristics of the terrain.
Also, in the diagrams and drawings, it is desirable to specify the decorative objects and places of planting of greenery. It is necessary that the elements of the drainage system is not damaged fruit trees, flower-beds, etc. alpine slides.
Projects for sandy and clay soils are different. For example, for the sand is easier to develop a system aimed at lowering the groundwater level and the most effective is the local outdoor drainage for loam. We remind you that the drainage system is functioning effectively only when the professional approach, amateur schemes often do not work.
That take into account when designing
To choose the type of drainage for a holiday home or the location of the channel is influenced by many factors. For example, great importance is the terrain. If the house is on a hill, and the rest of the territory is at a slight incline, then trim drainage, not likely to be required, and the removal of groundwater from the site can be achieved by a system channels.
It is important to the location of groundwater.
It is necessary to take into account the nature of the surrounding terrain. If the area around the site wetland or near a river, and the plot seems to be dry, in order to prevent also need to design a drainage system.
Let us consider in more detail the nuances that should also be taken into account when laying pipelines and trenches.
The depth and size of line
The location of the closed drainage system pipes are selected on the basis of project development, taking into account the slope towards the sump. Depth of the elements of the system depends on the level of groundwater. To dig a trench device of wall at the level of the foundation base, since its purpose - to enhance the quality of waterproofing and protecting the underground structure of the basement.
Ring drainage choose if construction of the house has been completed, respectively, completed all waterproofing and protective measures.
If the ground garden plot continually suffering from flooding from rain or seepage of ground water, the drainage system is needed throughout. Many variants - from the arrangement of the system perimeter to branched network which involves all suburban objects (buildings, pavements, gardening portion).
The direction of the channel and pipe strict - towards drainage ditches or installations beyond the infield area.
Standards bias culverts
The water in the horizontal pipes will stagnate if stacking accomplished without bias, the parameters of which are specified in the regulations. For clay and sandy soil, which has a different degree of permeability are different standards:
- loam and clay - from 0.003 or more;
- sand and loam - from 0,002 or more.
If we translate the values in millimeters, you get 3 mm / rm. m and 2 mm / rm. meter, respectively.
When calculating the maximal possible rate of charge properties of the surrounding soil into consideration, and dusting quality. You can not make the slope intervals - it must be observed throughout the pipeline / channel. For hilly possible variants with differences drainage device, with the installation of adapters into the manholes.
Popular schemes of drainage systems
Let us consider some schemes that often include holiday drainage project. Among them the system to drain water from the house, as well as drainage designs deployed species.
One of the most common schemes - drainage trim to enhance performance waterproofing protection of basement and plinth.
Driving the storage device wells for the collection and further use of drainage water is useful to those who are used to economize on natural resources.
Option open drainage schemes. The best option for truckers who own gardens with a slope or uneven terrain.
Sketch of the drainage system for the improvement of a garden area and adjacent to the home territory. Judging by the picture, the equipped house in a separate drainage structures are not needed.
Of course, the choice of scheme depends entirely on the conditions of a specific country site, therefore, begin with the study design should own territory.
Useful videos on the topic
A few helpful hints will help to expand the knowledge of drainage systems, and may be useful in the construction of structures or trenches with their hands.
Recommendations for the construction of drainage to protect the budget of the foundation:
Useful information about the different methods of drainage:
Tips for choosing a drain pipe:
drainage system design - responsible occupation, which can handle only a specialist. Improper installation of pipes or errors in the design of engineering structures can cause substantial harm. To protect the house or plot of ground or rain water is to contact the project organization. This does not rule out that some construction activities, you can make your own.