Flawlessly designed and correctly calculated drainage will take and collect the ground water from the site. It will protect the foundation from premature failure, ensure the normal growth of crop plants. In order to ensure spontaneous drain the collected water system, it is necessary to ensure the drainage slant pipe. And for its devices need accurate information, right?
All of drainage pipes stacked at what angle and how to organize the dried system, you will learn from us the proposed article. Following we present technical recommendations, you will be able to design and accurately calculate the drainage network. The basis for the above data are building regulations.
To help independent masters set out in detail the technology of water drainage system devices, thoroughly understand the specifics of the calculation and placing its components. For a visual perception of the information attached photos and videos.
The content of the article:
- Design of drainage features
- Superficial and deep scheme
Calculations and drainage construction standards
- Size # 1 - settlement piping diameter
- The value # 2 - the depth of bookmarks system
- Size # 3 - slope culverts
- The value of # 4 - required density geotextile
- Features installation of drainage on the slope
- Driving system apparatus and procedure
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Design of drainage features
There are three types of drainage systems each of which has its own structural features: horizontal, vertical, combined.
Working elements of horizontal drainage can be:
- tubular drains;
- gallery drains;
- trays and trenches.
drainage pipe system in combination with a dusting filter (multi-layer) - this is the tubular drains.
Multilayer filter dusting, in this case, is done to prevent the system leachable soils. According to the standards, the drain circuit is always fitted manholes.
For the organization of building an object (areas) of the drainage system different schemes may be used. The specific choice depends on the geological conditions of the area, the intensity of the rainfall patterns and other factors
Unlike tubular drains gallery drain pipes are arranged from the larger cross section. On the walls of the pipes have holes to collect waste.
Process device drains gallery also provides performance dusting with additional filtering geotextile.
Drains tubular in cross section. It is on this principle is carried out tubular device and gallery drains in modern housing projects. Compliance with the standards and accuracy of calculations guarantee high efficiency drainage systems
Drainage system with trays and trenches is usually done in such conditions, when the groundwater level is allowed up to the mark 1.3-1.5 m. The slopes performed on unstable ground trench on firm ground trench reinforce concrete structures.
vertical drainage system consists of a set of wells (wells) associated manifold. After collecting effluent line is retracted by means of the pump station. Also effluent drainage for vertical drainage can be discharged into the lower soil layers.
Combined drainage system combines horizontal and vertical schemes. Characterized by specialists as drainage and complex circuit arranged generally in areas where high performance is required draining soils.
Sloping drainage pipe, just like any other branch sewer, is required to ensure spontaneous drain the collected water to the point of disposal or off-site O
When the device drainage around the house foundation slope is formed in the direction of the collector or corner wells, redirecting the collected water to the dirt unloading place
Channels storm sewer and drainage system can be connected to one collector, have a general inspection and pivot shafts. They can not be combined with the usual items sewerage
Drainage pipe in all areas of the system laid with a slope but is necessary to accurately observe the amount of tilt. As the excess of it, and the lack of a negative impact on the transportation of waste
Laying drainage and sewerage pipe
The drainage system around the house foundation
Manholes of sewer systems
Laying drains to absorbing the well
Superficial and deep scheme
Based on the design parameters of penetration drains distinguish surface and deep drainage circuit. Appointment surface scheme - collection and removal of products of precipitation, as well as close-lying groundwater.
Appointment of deep schemes - reducing the groundwater level, collection and removal of the border area where the building is located the object.
EXAMPLE device surface drainage system. Surface drainage is widespread in the private house building. The system of collection and removal of atmospheric precipitation products needed for each case of construction of residential buildings
Scheme Estern storm sewer systems support point or linear execution. In the first case it is retracted effluent from local sources (drains, pits sidewalks, entrances collections).
Linear circuit provides a diversion of water throughout the installation site. Typically, the combined solution with the introduction of both schemes used on residential construction sites.
Deep drainage is required in almost all cases, the private housing construction and improvement of business areas. Effective protection of those elements of building structures, which are located below the zero level (foundations, basements, the root system of plants).
Exclude construction deep drainage acceptable at higher elevations, where the groundwater level does not exceed the level of 1.5 m, where it is noted efficient drainage of soil.
Detail circuit stacking deep drains. Typically, these schemes involve placement of drainage wells - at least one for every 30 meters of pipe length. On the straights allowed the installation intervals after 50 meters
Designing deep drainage scheme requires performance of high precision calculations. Even a small mistake in the calculations can lead to low efficiency of the system.
Practice mounting such circuits often indicates a common mistake - the depth calculation deviated Bookmarks drains. The result - uneven water removal from the premises, or worse - flooding of fertile land, basements.
On our site there are other articles, where we examined in detail the construction of the different drainage options. We recommend that you read them:
- drainage device around the house: design and construction of the drainage system with their own hands
- How to make the drainage of foundation of the house with his own hands: the secrets of the proper organization
- How competently to make the drainage of a garden site with his own hands: dismantle the correct arrangement of the technology
Calculations and drainage construction standards
Design values that are required for the construction of a drainage system, as a rule, are:
- size diameter piping;
- Bookmarks level pipelines;
- slope values pipes;
- density geotextile filter.
And details of each item.
Size # 1 - settlement piping diameter
The required diameter of the pipeline is calculated with emphasis on the design parameters of drainage intensity.
For private housing typically are optimal tube diameter of 100 mm. Their standard throughput is about 7 l / sec, which is consistent with the design rules in most cases.
Meanwhile, increasing the diameter of the drain can cover a large working area, to enhance system efficiency.
The value # 2 - the depth of bookmarks system
Bookmarks level drainage pipes, according to existing standards, determined by taking into account the two criteria:
- The level of soil freezing.
- Depth of laying the foundation.
Degree of soil freezing is directly related to the properties climatic areas. Therefore, for each area, this parameter may be different.
But in any case, the calculation of depth Bookmarks drainage pipe is conducted from the end point of freezing ground with the addition of this value is not less than 300-500 mm of additional penetration.
One of the important design parameters of deep drainage is to determine the extent of freezing of the soil on the object location portion. Based on the calculated data of soil freezing, calculated bookmark drain depth
By the same algorithm calculates the drainage foundation, but the foundation of the final point of occurrence.
Size # 3 - slope culverts
Under any bias to mount the pipe drainage system, standards SNIP indicate clearly. According to these standards, the minimum value of the slope drains must be taken in view of the allowable minimum flow rate of wastewater.
In this case further specifies that for the pipes of 150 mm diameter the minimum allowable slope should be at least 8 mm per meter length and the pipe diameter of 200 mm - not less than 7 mm per meter length. On certain sections of the network is allowed to underestimate these parameters to 7 mm and 5 mm, respectively.
Permissible maximum slope drainage pipes per meter of length - 150 mm. More this value admissible deviation only taps from plumbing fixtures during retraction length to 1.5 m.
On bezraschotnyh drain areas, which uses a pipe with a diameter of 40-50 mm, for example 30 to bias mm per meter length. A pipe with a diameter of 85-100 mm and under the same conditions of bias level is allowed to do no more than 20 mm per meter length.
Slope piping constituting the drainage system also relates to the basic design parameters. Compliance with the standards of the slope - this guarantees the creation of a drainage system that will work productively - to collect and drain water from the area
If the elements apply discharge trays accept bias level with an eye to such a velocity effluent which provides a self-cleaning effect of the liquid. Permissible filling trays - not more than 80% when the width of the tray is at least 20 mm.
Meaning trays width is calculated on the basis of hydraulic calculations and depends on the structural features of the elements. However, if the tray height greater than 50 mm, the width value may not be less than 70 mm.
Formation slope - a prerequisite in the construction of underground systems gravity draining dirt and atmospheric water and peeled in septic tanks liquid effluents
The slope is necessary to organize all over the gravity free-flow system: both the water collection area and on the site of its transportation to the place of unloading
Stormwater pipe, conveying rainwater to the collector or absorbing the well, as necessary to give a bias
Selection tilt generated drainage path depends on the diameter of the pipeline and the type of soil
If satisfied drainage for draining the layer of soil and vegetation, the capacity of which is typically less than 40 cm, the slope must be at least 0.01. It is believed that the drainage system should not completely drain water from the plant roots
For drainage device in loamy soils slope should be 0.001. This breed is hardly able to leak through its thickness to the underlying layers
When laying route of the drainage system in sandy soil slope should be 0.003 0.002 in loamy
Depth of the input drainage pipes in the collector and absorbs well defined at the construction site after the fact. Holes are drilled places pipes according to the actual input
Drainage pipe with a shell of a geotextile
Absorbing well for livnevki and drainage
Point Street inlet stormwater
Connection of drain tube to pivot the well
Surface drainage for draining soil
Drainage trench in the loamy soil
Construction of drainage in sandy formation
Depth input drainage pipes into the manifold
The value of # 4 - required density geotextile
When the drainage system project involves the use of a corrugated perforated drains pipes, together with recommended dusting use such pipes geotextile shell (Geotextiles).
Geotextile fabric performs the function of a filter element prevents line blockage fine soil particles. To maximize the effect of filtering is required calculation geotextile filter density. The optimum calculated value for domestic drainage system is considered density at 100-150 g / m2.
Features installation of drainage on the slope
Drainage systems provide waste removal due to the inclination drains. It would appear, subject to the location on the slope portion water must be exhausted from the site in a natural way, as in the apparatus of the drainage system is simply not necessary.
However, the case in such cases is quite different, and the drainage of the site on the slope becomes the same current events, for areas with slope horizon less than 8%.
Building of private houses on steep slopes - everyday practice. On the slopes of the water does not stay, but this fact can not be considered the reason for the rejection of the construction of the drainage system
Of course, the drainage areas on the slopes accompanied by its own characteristics. Often the soil on steep slopes has a heterogeneous structure. At different levels can be observed different levels of groundwater.
Therefore often necessary to apply the combined types of drainage to provide the required degree of dehumidification entire plot area.
Meanwhile, in the construction drainage systems on the slopes with the level of more than 8% standards allow no drainage manholes.
Driving system apparatus and procedure
Organization of drainage in the area with a slope of more than 8% level starts with a geological survey. According to the results of surveys determine aquifers occurrence of groundwater levels. drainage project site is developed on the basis of the information received on the slope, construction works are carried out.
Ultimately, the problem should be resolved to exclude the possibility of soil erosion chaotic natural drainage due to the steepness of the slope.
In a simple embodiment, this is done approximately as follows:
- The upper portion is created around the first horizontal surface drains.
- On the lower portion is created around the second horizontal surface drains.
- Both drains are connected perpendicular to the trenches.
- From horizontal drains the lower level makes removal in drainage well.
If the site has a stepped landscape of complex shape and object project involves the construction of retaining walls, stairs, transitional areas for each element of the project is necessary to construct a point drainage, turning into a system of linear guttering.
Lots of large area, located on the slopes, as a rule, are equipped with surface drains are not isolated, but full-fledged water collection and drainage systems of the type "herringbone".
Branched drain is arranged on the upper horizon and combined with drainage collector loop around the construction site. Of wastewater circuit are forwarded to a collection of off-site or in storm sewers.
Scheme drainage device for an object built on a slope. Usually constructed on the slopes of the combined drains, as the territory on the slope is traditionally characterized by difficult terrain
Such a circuit design called an annular drainage. Due to the construction of a protective circuit, located at the perimeter of the object, manages to take control of the ground water level. In turn, the "Christmas Tree" provides a collection of water with a surface area and its effective removal.
Mounting ring drains is performed at a distance from the construction site. This factor makes it possible to construct an annular drainage system directly on the stage of operation of household structures.
It should be noted that the effectiveness of reducing the groundwater level within the boundaries of the inner part of the circuit depends on the following parameters:
- level of penetration pipes;
- the level of penetration of galleries;
- level of penetration holes (if any).
On the effectiveness of the protection also affect the size of the circuit.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
A few practical tips on laying drainage pipes will help you cope with the drainage device in the suburban area.
Protection areas (areas) of the moisture saturation - an urgent task that must be solved in almost every case of construction. Existing drainage systems development allow us to solve such problems.
The main point - to calculate and choose drains device that would be perfect in every case.
Plan to build the drainage area in the home, but encountered difficulties in the design phase? Ask your questions in the comments section - we will try to help you.
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