In areas where it is very close to the surface of the deposited layers of groundwater and impressive falls during the year rainfall, there is a natural soil waterlogging, washing away the foundations of permanent structures and flooding cellars.
To protect the house from these unpleasant phenomena and remove excess moisture from the ground, you can hire stroybrigadu with special equipment. She quickly and professionally carry out all the work, but the cost is "pleasure" is not cheap, which is not always acceptable, agree?
In order to save the family budget can make drainage area with your hands, spending a lot more time and saving quite a substantial sum. And how it is right to do and where to start, we will consider in our article - analyze features surface and deep drainage, give recommendations on the production of each of these types of drainage.
The content of the article:
- What problems does the drainage system?
- Where necessary to organize vodoottoka?
Types and drainage systems
- Features of surface water discharge
- The distinctive features of deep drainage
- How to organize the surface water drainage?
- How to make a deep drainage?
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
What problems does the drainage system?
Correct removal of excess water from the base foundation residential buildings and outbuildings protects the structure from rain, not aesthetic appearance of the raw spots, darkening the corners and the formation of mold and cellars - from annual seasonal flooding.
The soil is not "floats", and at low temperatures do not arise effects of frost heaving, "embossing" built from the ground. Cuttings, paths and sidewalks, stationed on the territory, do not crack and preserved in perfect condition.
The well-drained areas of communication and treatment facilities for a long time and work reliably. Even with increasing seasonal groundwater level obtained path to the outflow outlet and do not provoke septic tanks and cesspools impurities from outside.
Moisture from the separated precipitation promptly by leaving the branch channels, does not react with the salts contained in the soil and does not produce corrosive compounds which decompose construction materials.
drainage apparatus - complex activities conducted to remove dirt and storm water lingering in the soil and rocks of the upper layers
The drainage system will ensure complete removal of soil and flood water from the foundation of the house, to protect underground facilities from flooding
drainage of underground water system will eliminate the likelihood of subsidence of soil under the foundation and other buildings on the site, prevent erosion and collapse of the soil layers under the house
Removal of ground water via drainage will provide a long-term communications operation, eliminate common cause of premature wear
site drainage will create favorable for plant establishment and growth conditions in the country site
drainage will allow the organization to equip territory for comfortable movement on site and full operation of property
The gardens drainage significantly extend the life of fruit trees and perennial shrubs, remove causes rotting of the root system
For the full arrangement of suburban areas is recommended to supplement the drainage of storm sewers. Working in tandem, these systems provide a complete removal of both rainfall and water contained in the soil
Prerequisites for the drainage device
Flooded pit for the foundation of the house
The weakening of the mineral base under the foundation
Accumulation of water in a trench for a pipeline
Creating conditions for the life of plants
The drainage system in the garden area
Livnevki - weighty addition of drainage system
Qualitative drainage prevents puddles formed after the rain, and stagnate in the soil pereuvlazhnyat gardenThereby causing water erosion.
In areas with a pronounced slope drainage system during heavy rains redirect water flows drains, thereby preventing soil erosion and maintaining an attractive appearance overall the soil surface.
In conjunction with roofing livnestokovymi communications drainage system rapidly removes excess water from the perimeter land tenure does not give it to seep into the basement, basement and prevents flooding of both buildings and the entire section.
Water erosion has a negative impact on the status of land cover and significantly reduces the yield of garden and vegetable crops
Where necessary to organize vodoottoka?
Flat area definitely needs drainage. If moisture is formed as a result of heavy rains and melting snow, can not find the outflow tract, it just stays in place, and rapidly impregnates the ground leads to waterlogging, smudges and global overwetting land.
The plot is located in a valley, disappears without a good drainage system. All the water from higher flows at him, and the area, in the best case, oversaturated with moisture, and at worst is flooded.
The land is located at a sharp incline, without drainage loses some of its valuable qualities. Too fast decreasing water dilutes the upper fertile soil layer and substantially reduces the yield.
drainage system is necessary portions disposed in the hollow. Further characteristic features of relief of their thickness is large top soil or peat and close to the surface of ground water
Unequivocal sign, which requires the drainage of the organization, is a high water table, even if it occurs only during the flood period. For example, when designing a trench with a depth of 1 m water-saturated soil recovered as in Example pictured
In areas with a slope drainage systems are not primarily for removal, and for holding water, to form a water balance in the soil-plant layer
The drainage system is necessary if the upper soil layers are represented by argillaceous rocks: clay sand, loam. Because of their low water filtration qualities of poor care in lower horizons
Situated in the hollow land
High water table
Drainage improvement in the area with a slope
Laying in of the drain pipe loam
For areas with clay and loamy soil drainage - an objective need. Species of this type have a high density and poor conductivity. Dropped in the form of precipitation moisture long stagnates in them, and leads to a general eutrophication terrain, shifts of soil and disruption of the stability of a fixed foundations of residential and business buildings.
Can not do without a full drainage system and where the level of occurrence of natural ground water is less than 1 meter. If you ignore the withdrawal, there is risk of flooding basements and cellars, violated the integrity of the foundation, and on capital, bearing wall cracks. All this in the future could lead to partial or complete collapse of residential and commercial buildings.
In the case of a seasonal increase in the natural groundwater level in the risk zone houses and farm buildings with deep foundations. His sole in this case is at risk, and in the cellars and plinths, even equipped with a good waterproofing, moisture may appear and dampness.
To avoid these unpleasant moments, you must design a drainage system and introduce it at the construction planning stage at home or immediately after the purchase of real estate.
Almost mandatory phenomenon, which results in the lack of quality of the drainage system at the site, it cracks in the walls. Of course, they can be putty, but the integrity of the interior space has to be broken and the room will be vulnerable to the penetration of moisture and cold
For portions partially or completely concreted cobblestone, sidewalk tiles or color mosaic, the presence of drainage channels and drains just be sure. Otherwise, after rain or melting snow on the surface of the puddle will stagnate provoking cracking upper decorative layer and violate the integrity of the coating.
You must be equipped with drainage and where lawns are located, equipped with advanced automatic irrigation complexes. This allows you to control the level of soil moisture and prevent the loss of rare plants as a result of silting soil.
Drainage channels make it possible to quickly remove the water from the site and do not let it flooded buildings, spoil the landscape design and infrastructure harm the area.
Types and drainage systems
Drainage systems differ by technical characteristics, efficiency, and a method arrangement. To create with their hands on private land are most suitable drainage of deep and surface type of occurrence. The choice depends on the purpose for which in the future we plan to use the installed system.
To collect water from paved surfaces and asphalt satisfied storm sewers. This system collects the water does not penetrate into the ground
Storm sewers satisfied even on paved or partially equipped paving tile portions because water permeable lawn is not able to fully take all the water
Storm sewers and drainage can be laid in the same trench, and output to a common collector or an absorbing well
Both types of wastewater systems can be arranged as a closed and open way
Storm water drain on a cobbled site
Livnevki partially on paved portion
Drainage and livnevki in one trench
The device is an open drainage system
Features of surface water discharge
Organization of surface drainage with their hands on private land is justified and relevant.
Despite its simplicity, the system efficiently removes excess moisture formed during rainfall and snowmelt. Furthermore, it promotes drainage of water that accumulates during car washing, lawn watering or rinsing located within the possession or concreted bruschatyh tracks.
Surface drainage systems are classified as budgetary. Their arrangement does not entail the use of expensive materials, and is reduced to the installation of street inlets and the trays facilitating correct outflow of excess water from the area
Stock communications placed around residential buildings and outbuildings, in the locations of paved areas and at the exit of the garage, and with the territory of the site.
A variation # 1 - linear system
A linear system is a structure of the trays placed in a specially prepared trench equally with the water level. In the process of digging canals installation in compliance with the conditions of a constant bias towards drainage wells.
In this embodiment, the water goes by gravity system and no additional funds are not used for its movement.
Livnevki linear water collecting system is a system of shallow channels, which collect the water and move it to a point disposal or further retraction
Trays stormwater made of concrete, plastic, polymer-mixture. For protection against clogging trays closed metal or plastic lattices
Point receiving waters pose a drain risers. The water is removed from them mainly closed channels, folded from the sewer pipes. But practice and outdoor options such as ditches or channels of the same tray with grids and without bars
livnevki water conduit with point receivers operate from a sealed plastic tubes or corrugations. The channels of both systems should not leak into the ground, and are required to fully display it to the place of unloading
Storm sewer line type
The apparatus of the line type systems
Spot water intake riser under the gutters
livnevki conduit with point Estern
For full operation of the complex is equipped with a sand trap, preventing silting of communications, and the top is closed strong bars that allow you to safely move over the surface area, and pedestrians, and vehicles (not only subcompact, but Freight).
Linear channels have high permeability and are able to pass through a large amount of water. It is considered the most successful option for draining large areas and large landholdings.
Plastic trash box superalloy has several advantages at once. It has a light weight, easy to install and protects drains from possible contamination and costs quite reasonable money. These parameters determine the high popularity of the element in private construction
Variety # 2 - point drainage
Spot drainage water collects in sections and forwards it to the overall excess of storm-sewer system. Usually used where pave linear drainage is not possible or is not considered appropriate.
When mounting the communications gullies are arranged in areas of maximum accumulation of water, for example directly under the stormwater drains, irrigation valves, water columns at the entrance to the garage, a gateway, or even just in the areas of the territory, where the water after irrigation or heavy rainfall most stagnates often.
Even small pools formed after irrigation, rainfall or snowmelt can cause problems and lead to deterioration of residential and outbuildings. To avoid these troubles, in risk areas need to set point drainage wells
Spot variant drainage efficiently functioning independently where required local water serves to collect any practical addition of any other system. Needs maintenance and regular cleaned yet.
Volumetric embodiment uses considerably less popular than the other two above-described embodiment. He is more labor intensive and entails large-scale earthworks. The system is formed from a mixture of sand, gravel, geotextile layer, gratings and soil. All these elements are located in areas where there is an open ground.
In the presence of drainage volume in the ground water is only necessary for the natural moisture. Any surplus goes through the system in the deeper layers and do not cause any inconvenience to owners of ownership and complexity. Most often, these communications are mounted in parks, playgrounds and lawns to maintain optimum moisture content of useful area.
Selection of the drainage system is carried out individually for each plot, in view of its location, size, shape, physical and mechanical properties of the soil, the ground water level and propensity to locality waterlogging.
According to the depth of laying the drainage system are divided into deep and superficial:
Deep drainage arrange for lowering the groundwater level. Laying it on a 20 cm below the base of underground structures or above the water impermeable layer of clay - aquitard
For the collection of water from the top soil layer and stabilizing its moisture arrange surface drainage system bury them by 0.4 - 0.7 m from the surface
Headers drainage systems of both species is a perforated pipe wrapped with geotextile. To increase the filtering and improving the catchment between the geotextile and the tube has a layer of polymer beads
Drainage pipes are laid so that was formed by a bias towards the collector, absorbent, manhole or gutter
Deep drainage to protect the foundation
The system for the collection of water from the soil
Apparatus drainage pipe system
The slope toward discharge conduit
The distinctive features of deep drainage
Not in all cases it is possible to do only superficial vodootokom. For more solutions to global problems, such as lowering the overall level of groundwater protection against flooding or a certain area have to be laid on the territory of the deep drainage system.
Deep drainage is:
Next, we analyze the characteristics of each of these species drainage.
View # 1 - Pipe laying method
Pipe laying method is relevant where the water table is at great depths. Improvement involves the use of Drenov - special pipes with perforations. They are housed under the ground, providing the corresponding pre-bias level in the direction toward the collector.
Moisture penetrates into the drain through holes and passing through the channels, flows into the well storm sewer system, collector or a natural or artificial reservoir located outside equip land.
deep drainage system is located in areas where the water table is at a distance of 2.5 meters from the surface. It characterized by high efficiency, but entails considerable excavation. To lay such communication is recommended prior to the start of major construction and arrangement of landscape design
View # 2 - bedded drainage
The reservoir drainage is very common and is carried out on the areas with complex hydrogeological conditions.
In addition, it:
- It provides moisture outflow from residential buildings even in the presence of a massive close overlying aqueous layer of pressure or groundwater.
- It helps to reduce the level of groundwater, where the task can not handle other types of drainage systems.
- It demonstrates high efficiency in areas with a layered structure of the aquifer and to cope with the challenge of water buildings in need of absolute dryness and categorically do not accept water penetration due to certain operational characteristics.
In case of acute need bedded drainage can be mounted on loamy and clayey soils, acting as a preventive barrier to moisture and humidity.
When laying at the foot of the building in the vicinity of the foundation provides for mandatory equipping crushed stone cushion, performing as a natural filter for the water flow.
Drains of modern polymeric material available on the market in a variety of versions. Their main advantages - efficiency, reliability, ease of installation and excellent performance
View # 3 - circular drainage
Ring drainage is used to protect against flooding cellars and basements of buildings of buildings erected on sandy soil type. If desired or if necessary, a drainage system around the house It can be equipped with not only a house, but also construction group existing on the site.
When groundwater comes very close to buildings with only one hand, it is acceptable to lay a non-closed ring and drain to create a barrier to moisture and dampness particularly in the most vulnerable location.
the organization is allowed to drain part of the land of some of the most appropriate type arrangement or several systems to ensure the most efficient drainage of excessive moisture.
Drainage system for collecting water from penetrating into the first surface layer of soil in the soil or planting area portion is arranged in a traditional sequence:
According to a predetermined plan system required dig the trench depth and blanketed its geotextile
On top of the geotextile fall asleep gravel or polypropylene granules are then laid Dren and again fall asleep with the same material, different high filtering properties
Dren harbored bombarded with gravel edges of geotextiles. Sprinkle arranged by us, "twisting" the ground in several places, so as not to set during reverse dumping
Cornering system and after every 25 m in the drainage path set manholes. Fall asleep trench with sand drainage system. It is necessary to pour in layers with waiting periods of natural shrinkage of soil, tamp it is not necessary
Step 1: Development of the trench and the laying of geotextile
Step 2: Laying drains and backfilling it with gravel
Step 3: The wrapping of the drainage channel
Step 4: Feedback dumping and planning portion
How to organize the surface water drainage?
Before you begin to implement drainage measures on personal plot of land with their own hands, to determine what you need a system, and then make a rough plan of work.
If problems with the water leaving only concern certain parts of the territory, and appear only in the period heavy rainfall or snowmelt active, the hosts, are usually limited to local drainage.
If the site in general water goes evenly, there is no need for a large-scale drainage system. Enough to place under the headers storm pipes, and the problem with flooding or penetration of moisture into the house forever disappear from the circle of your interests
To do this in the field of maximum accumulation of water placed water intakes: a sealed container, or drainage wells connected by channels with the general storm sewer. At a global problem on the site of supply mains for linear drainage.
To make the system hardware first location project of all communications and determine the location of the main reservoir for collecting excess water. The entire territory covered area network trench depth of about half a meter. Frequency location determined based on the level of bogging throughout. If the ground is very wet, the maximum number of channels are prepared for the challenge.
For a complete and quality of the system drainage trench paving with a bias towards the future location of the water intake. If the land is in the territory has an uneven surface, canals dug straight down in relation to the terrain.
When the plot is a flat area, slopes create artificially. This is to ensure that water does not stagnate in the drainage lines of communication, and quickly went into the natural or artificial water inlet.
The most frequent drainage grid settle in areas with clay and loamy soil. On lighter soils channels pave less. Narrow trench digging the edges perimeter of the entire area, gradually increasing their breadth as it approaches the main drain the well. Maximum wide trench are left for the channel on which the entire volume of water passes into the discharge compartment.
Setting the tray for linear drainage, in the trench, first make a concrete pad with a minimum height of 10 centimeters. It clearly fixes the drainage in the ground and does not allow him to shift in the process of a possible subsidence. For additional security inside the channel pave reinforcing mesh
When the system is fully laid, it is tested for operability. To do this, from several points by means of hoses allowed powerful streams of water. If the water goes to all areas evenly, so the complex is functioning normally.
When the moisture in some places flows slowly or is stagnant, the slope of the trench level increase. Then Palletized channels close bars that did not get to the leaves, debris and other foreign elements that could clog the drain system.
Equipment for surface drainage systems should use a concrete tray with galvanized steel bars. It has excellent performance characteristics, the water passes at a speed of more than 4 liters / sec and holds up to one and a half tons
Upon completion of work related to the arrangement of linear drainage, decorate the surrounding area according to their own tastes and the general idea of landscape design adopted in the area.
How to make a deep drainage?
For correct installation of deep drainage on a personal plot of land in the first place form a clear project All works by setting types available on site soil, the topography and the level of ground water.
This kind of research charge geological engineering organizations. They will make a complete study of the area, and then provide the customer surveying, in detail describing the terrain, hydrogeological characteristics and geological structure of the area. Having at hand this information to establish an effective drainage system there is no difficulty.
Construction of the system is performed in the following order:
Apparatus drainage system for lowering the ground water level by its collection and removal to be unloaded, developing the trench. Its depth of 20 cm below the base of a foundation or above impervious layer
The bottom of the trench filled with sand, ramming it and flatten so that the side of the receiving point (sight, collector, absorbing wells) observed deviation of 2-3 cm per meter
Backfilled trench bottom sand blanketed geotextile drainage tube laid, wrap it and fill the first trench with gravel, then sand. Livnevki and drainage can be run simultaneously
For the reception and disposal of soil collected in groundwater arrange absorbs well from concrete rings. The bottom of the well is to be buried in the ground with a good bandwidth (in the sand, gravel and sandy or detrital sediments)
The bottom of the well was covered with geotextile, in order to improve the purification of discharged water in the soil. Then go to sleep sand and gravel, a total of the precoat filter strength should be at least 1 m
The well arranged absorbing enter drains and pipe stormwater
Drain conduit and filled with sand storm sewers layerwise
Trenches filled with sand in layers, not ramming it, and give a natural way to sit. Track systems celebrate in any way not to damage during the production of other works
Step 1: Development of trenches for drainage device
Step 2: Filling sand on the bottom of the trench
Step 3: Placing the drainage pipe in the trench
Step 4: The construction of filter wells
Step 5: soil filter device in the well
Step 6: Putting the pipeline into the absorbing well
Backfilling the trench with the pipeline sand
Step 8: Planning area with underground systems
The basic elements of the system deep vodoottoka - drains (specific tube design). They are located below the building foundation pads, which are planning to protect, or around the perimeter of the land tenure in the 80 centimeters to one and a half meters deep.
Necessary pipe slope make towards the collector drain well, or any other natural or artificial reservoir located outside the station.
In this way, the moisture was collected, assembled as a result of precipitation, and lowered to the overall level of noncritical state lying adjacent groundwater. In the center of the site and along the edges of the drains located at a distance of 10-20 meters from each other. Herringbone shaped design, wherein the extreme channels redirect all the water in the main trench, leading to the main water inlet.
To enhance the effectiveness of deep drainage pipe system is used, equipped with double-layer geotextile circular and perforated layer. Such an embodiment is suitable for communication of all types of soils and has the ability to deliver more water
On a completely flat areas necessary slope achieve by lowering when digging the trench bottom. For loamy and clayey soils the optimum bias level is considered to 2 cm per meter tube to sand - 3 centimeters. If the site has an extensive area, in order to avoid too global earthmoving set several manhole.
Communication pipes fitted with swivel and rainwater wells. If necessary and if it is impossible to withdraw excess water off-site added to the other elements absorption (filter) wellIntended to drain the bulk water.
Under the base of the absorption of the well is required to make the bulk layer of gravel or crushed brick. This is to ensure that the collected liquid is uniformly left in the soil and not washed away the lower layers, causing land subsidence
Directly before laying the pipe trench is filled in 10-cm layer of sand krupnozernitogo and a layer of gravel.
The resulting depreciation pillow does not allow communication to break down under the weight of the soil. In order to avoid silting of pipes feeds prostilayut geotextile.
deep drainage laying desirable to carry out in the area after all the heavy construction work, to communication not sagged and cracked as a result of an intensive service load
Above decomposed pipes make one more layer of sand and gravel, and the remaining voids filled with earth, making on the surface of hillocks. When the system is finally "sit" in the trenches, pour the earth itself will fall to its natural level.
Correctly and clearly established system provides timely and quick removal of water from the site and reliably protects the building from flooding and subsequent destruction.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video tips for those who decided to do their own device drainage system on their own summer cottage or garden plot.
The video clearly shows how the build surface drainage system on the plot:
Useful video information on the organization of drainage around the apartment building:
Knowing the rules of the installation of drainage systems, and following the above tips to make drainage on a personal plot of land there is no trouble. If difficulties arise, you can contact the experts, and they are professional help in solving problems.
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